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      Spatial Distribution of Trypanosomes in Cattle From Western Kenya

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          African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a tsetse-transmitted protozoan disease endemic in “the tsetse belt” of Africa. Past studies investigating the epidemiology of the disease rarely focused on spatial distribution when reporting the prevalence. The challenge of understanding the spatial epidemiology of the disease is further confounded by low-sensitive parasitological techniques used in field investigations. This study aimed to identify trypanosome species in cattle and their spatial distribution in western Kenya. Low-sensitive microscopic analysis and highly-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were also compared to better understand the epidemiology of Trypanosoma infections by use of the geographical information system (GIS). Blood samples from 888 cattle, collected between August 2010 and July 2012, were examined for Trypanosoma parasites by light microscopy and PCR. The spatial distribution of Trypanosoma positive cases by species were mapped and overlaid on the map for tsetse distribution. The estimated prevalence was 4.17% by PCR compared to 2.48% by microscopy. Trypanosomes were detected in tsetse free areas. Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma b. brucei were identified, but not the zoonotic Trypanosoma b. rhodesiense. This study demonstrated the importance of geospatial data analysis to understand the epidemiology of the parasite, to inform future research and formulate control strategies.

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          Eliminating Human African Trypanosomiasis: Where Do We Stand and What Comes Next>

          While the number of new detected cases of HAT is falling, say the authors, sleeping sickness could suffer the "punishment of success," receiving lower priority by public and private health institutions.
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            Mapping the economic benefits to livestock keepers from intervening against bovine trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa.

            Endemic animal diseases such as tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis are a constant drain on the financial resources of African livestock keepers and on the productivity of their livestock. Knowing where the potential benefits of removing animal trypanosomosis are distributed geographically would provide crucial evidence for prioritising and targeting cost-effective interventions as well as a powerful tool for advocacy. To this end, a study was conducted on six tsetse-infested countries in Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. First, a map of cattle production systems was generated, with particular attention to the presence of draught and dairy animals. Second, herd models for each production system were developed for two scenarios: with or without trypanosomosis. The herd models were based on publications and reports on cattle productivity (fertility, mortality, yields, sales), from which the income from, and growth of cattle populations were estimated over a twenty-year period. Third, a step-wise spatial expansion model was used to estimate how cattle populations might migrate to new areas when maximum stocking rates are exceeded. Last, differences in income between the two scenarios were mapped, thus providing a measure of the maximum benefits that could be obtained from intervening against tsetse and trypanosomosis. For this information to be readily mappable, benefits were calculated per bovine and converted to US$ per square kilometre. Results indicate that the potential benefits from dealing with trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa are both very high and geographically highly variable. The estimated total maximum benefit to livestock keepers for the whole of the study area amounts to nearly US$ 2.5 billion, discounted at 10% over twenty years--an average of approximately US$ 3300 per square kilometre of tsetse-infested area--but with great regional variation from less than US$ 500 per square kilometre to well over US$ 10,000. The greatest potential benefits accrue to Ethiopia, because of its very high livestock densities and the importance of animal traction, but also to parts of Kenya and Uganda. In general, the highest benefit levels occur on the fringes of the tsetse infestations. The implications of the models' assumptions and generalisations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              A changing environment and the epidemiology of tsetse-transmitted livestock trypanosomiasis.

              The distribution, prevalence and impact of vector-borne diseases are often affected by anthropogenic environmental changes that alter the interactions between the host, the parasite and the vector. In the case of tsetse-transmitted livestock trypanosomiasis these changes are a result of the encroachment of people and their livestock into tsetse-infected wild areas. This has created a sequence of new epidemiological settings that is changing the relative importance of the domestic or sylvatic trypanosome transmission cycles and is causing concomitant changes in the impact of the disease on livestock. These changes in the dynamics of the epidemiology have an important impact on the factors that need to be considered when developing area-specific strategies for the future management of tsetse-transmitted livestock trypanosomiasis.

                Author and article information

                Front Vet Sci
                Front Vet Sci
                Front. Vet. Sci.
                Frontiers in Veterinary Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 August 2020
                : 7
                1International Livestock Research Institute , Nairobi, Kenya
                2Biomedical Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School, University of Edinburgh , Edinburgh, United Kingdom
                3Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool , Liverpool, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Anuwat Wiratsudakul, Mahidol University, Thailand

                Reviewed by: Md. Aminul Islam, Tohoku University, Japan; Dongbo Sun, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, China

                *Correspondence: Velma Kivali velmakivali@ 123456gmail.com
                Elizabeth A. J. Cook e.cook@ 123456cgiar.org

                This article was submitted to Veterinary Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Veterinary Science

                Copyright © 2020 Kivali, Kiyong'a, Fyfe, Toye, Fèvre and Cook.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 25, Pages: 6, Words: 3980
                Veterinary Science
                Brief Research Report

                trypanosomiasis, tsetse, cattle, kenya, spatial distribution


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