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      Mitophagy inhibits amyloid-β and tau pathology and reverses cognitive deficits in models of Alzheimer’s disease

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          Abstract

          Accumulation of damaged mitochondria is a hallmark of aging and age-related neurodegeneration, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The molecular mechanisms of impaired mitochondrial homeostasis in AD are being investigated. Here we provide evidence that mitophagy is impaired in the hippocampus of AD patients, in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human AD neurons, and in animal AD models. In both amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau Caenorhabditis elegans models of AD, mitophagy stimulation (through NAD+ supplementation, urolithin A, and actinonin) reverses memory impairment through PINK-1 (PTEN-induced kinase-1)-, PDR-1 (Parkinson's disease-related-1; parkin)-, or DCT-1 (DAF-16/FOXO-controlled germline-tumor affecting-1)-dependent pathways. Mitophagy diminishes insoluble Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40 and prevents cognitive impairment in an APP/PS1 mouse model through microglial phagocytosis of extracellular Aβ plaques and suppression of neuroinflammation. Mitophagy enhancement abolishes AD-related tau hyperphosphorylation in human neuronal cells and reverses memory impairment in transgenic tau nematodes and mice. Our findings suggest that impaired removal of defective mitochondria is a pivotal event in AD pathogenesis and that mitophagy represents a potential therapeutic intervention.

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          Most cited references33

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          Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia.

          Changes in gamma oscillations (20-50 Hz) have been observed in several neurological disorders. However, the relationship between gamma oscillations and cellular pathologies is unclear. Here we show reduced, behaviourally driven gamma oscillations before the onset of plaque formation or cognitive decline in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Optogenetically driving fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (FS-PV)-interneurons at gamma (40 Hz), but not other frequencies, reduces levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-40 and Aβ 1-42 isoforms. Gene expression profiling revealed induction of genes associated with morphological transformation of microglia, and histological analysis confirmed increased microglia co-localization with Aβ. Subsequently, we designed a non-invasive 40 Hz light-flickering regime that reduced Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels in the visual cortex of pre-depositing mice and mitigated plaque load in aged, depositing mice. Our findings uncover a previously unappreciated function of gamma rhythms in recruiting both neuronal and glial responses to attenuate Alzheimer's-disease-associated pathology.
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            A Simple Statistical Parameter for Use in Evaluation and Validation of High Throughput Screening Assays

            J-H Zhang (1999)
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              Compromised autophagy and neurodegenerative diseases.

              Most neurodegenerative diseases that afflict humans are associated with the intracytoplasmic deposition of aggregate-prone proteins in neurons and with mitochondrial dysfunction. Autophagy is a powerful process for removing such proteins and for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. Over recent years, evidence has accumulated to demonstrate that upregulation of autophagy may protect against neurodegeneration. However, autophagy dysfunction has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. This Review summarizes the progress that has been made in our understanding of how perturbations in autophagy are linked with neurodegenerative diseases and the potential therapeutic strategies resulting from the modulation of this process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Neuroscience
                Nat Neurosci
                Springer Nature
                1097-6256
                1546-1726
                February 11 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41593-018-0332-9
                6693625
                30742114
                3d5ef79c-83a5-45db-bdf2-fa5b75b6d0a6
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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