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      Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review


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          We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

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            The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research

            Despite the prevalence of sleep complaints among psychiatric patients, few questionnaires have been specifically designed to measure sleep quality in clinical populations. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is a self-rated questionnaire which assesses sleep quality and disturbances over a 1-month time interval. Nineteen individual items generate seven "component" scores: subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction. The sum of scores for these seven components yields one global score. Clinical and clinimetric properties of the PSQI were assessed over an 18-month period with "good" sleepers (healthy subjects, n = 52) and "poor" sleepers (depressed patients, n = 54; sleep-disorder patients, n = 62). Acceptable measures of internal homogeneity, consistency (test-retest reliability), and validity were obtained. A global PSQI score greater than 5 yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% (kappa = 0.75, p less than 0.001) in distinguishing good and poor sleepers. The clinimetric and clinical properties of the PSQI suggest its utility both in psychiatric clinical practice and research activities.
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              Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating couples.


                Author and article information

                URI : http://frontiersin.org/people/u/117292
                Front Psychiatry
                Front Psychiatry
                Front. Psychiatry
                Frontiers in Psychiatry
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                24 October 2016
                : 7
                [1] 1Department of Psychobiology, Psychology Faculty, Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) , Madrid, Spain
                [2] 2Clinical Management of Mental Health Unit, Biomedical Research Institute of Málaga, Regional University Hospital of Málaga (Unidad de Gestión Clínica de Salud Mental, Hospital Regional Universitario de Málaga, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga – IBIMA) , Málaga, Spain
                [3] 3Istituto de Investigación i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre de Madrid , Madrid, Spain
                Author notes

                Edited by: Alain Dervaux, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, France

                Reviewed by: Carla Cannizzaro, University of Palermo, Italy; Luigi Janiri, Universitá Cattolica del S. Cuore, Italy

                *Correspondence: José De-Sola Gutiérrez, jsola@ 123456ccee.ucm.es ; Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, fernando.rodriguez@ 123456ibima.eu ; Gabriel Rubio, gabrielrubio@ 123456med.ucm.es

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Addictive Disorders, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry

                Copyright © 2016 De-Sola Gutiérrez, Rodríguez de Fonseca and Rubio.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 162, Pages: 15, Words: 13044
                Funded by: Instituto de Salud Carlos III 10.13039/501100004587
                Award ID: RD12/0028/0001

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                addiction,behavioral addiction,cell-phone addiction,dependence,internet addiction


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