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      Anthocyanins and Their Variation in Red Wines II. Anthocyanin Derived Pigments and Their Color Evolution

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          Abstract

          Originating in the grapes, anthocyanins and their derivatives are the crucial pigments responsible for the red wine color. During wine maturation and aging, the concentration of monomeric anthocyanins declines constantly, while numerous more complex and stable anthocyanin derived pigments are formed, mainly including pyranoanthocyanins, polymeric anthocyanins produced from condensation between anthocyanin and/or flavan-3-ols directly or mediated by aldehydes. Correspondingly, their structural modifications result in a characteristic variation of color, from purple-red color in young red wines to brick-red hue of the aged. Because of the extreme complexity of chemical compounds involved, many investigations have been made using model solutions of know composition rather than wine. Thus, there is a large amount of research still required to obtain an overall perspective of the anthocyanin composition and its change with time in red wines. Future findings may well greatly revise our current interpretation of the color in red wines. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the studies of the anthocyanins derived pigments in red wines, as well as their color evolution.

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          Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review

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            Tracking color and pigment changes in anthocyanin products

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              Non-thermal stabilization mechanisms of anthocyanins in model and food systems—An overview

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                07 February 2012
                February 2012
                : 17
                : 2
                : 1483-1519
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China
                [2 ] Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand
                Author notes
                [† ]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Email: chqduan@ 123456yahoo.com.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-6273-7136; Fax: +86-10-6273-7136.
                Article
                molecules-17-01483
                10.3390/molecules17021483
                6269080
                23442981
                3e2c4cdc-e351-44d8-a770-5d5c2e9182cd
                © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 02 December 2011
                : 25 January 2012
                : 02 February 2012
                Categories
                Review

                anthocyanin,red wine,pyranoanthocyanin,polymeric anthocyanins,wine maturation and aging

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