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      Angiotensin II Induces the Vascular Expression of VEGF and MMP-2 in vivo: Preventive Effect of Red Wine Polyphenols

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          Abstract

          Objective: Previous investigations have indicated that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are prevented by intake of red wine polyphenols (RWPs). Ang II has also been shown to increase the expression of VEGF and MMP-2, two major pro-inflammatory factors, in vascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether intake of RWPs is able to prevent these effects in rats and, if so, to characterize the underlying mechanism. Methods: VEGF and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting, MMP-2 activity by zymography, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by dihydroethidine. Results: Ang II increased VEGF expression and MMP-2 activity in the aortic wall. Ang II-induced MMP-2 activation is inhibited by N<sup>G</sup>-nitro- L-arginine and MnTMPyP. Ang II increased the expression of eNOS, the formation of ROS and the nitration of proteins. The stimulatory effects of Ang II on these factors are prevented by RWPs intake. Conclusions: Infusion of Ang II induced vascular expression of VEGF and peroxynitrite-dependent activation of MMP-2, with both effects being prevented by RWPs intake. Thus, prevention of VEGF and MMP-2 expression might be involved in the protective effect of red wine on coronary heart diseases.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Reactive oxygen species produced by macrophage-derived foam cells regulate the activity of vascular matrix metalloproteinases in vitro. Implications for atherosclerotic plaque stability.

          Vulnerable areas of atherosclerotic plaques often contain lipid-laden macrophages and display matrix metalloproteinase activity. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species released by macrophage-derived foam cells could trigger activation of latent proforms of metalloproteinases in the vascular interstitium. We showed that in vivo generated macrophage foam cells produce superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide after isolation from hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Effects of these reactive oxygens and that of peroxynitrite, likely to result from simultaneous production of nitric oxide and superoxide, were tested in vitro using metalloproteinases secreted by cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells. Enzymes in culture media or affinity-purified (pro-MMP-2 and MMP-9) were examined by SDS-PAGE zymography, Western blotting, and enzymatic assays. Under the conditions used, incubation with xanthine/xanthine oxidase increased the amount of active gelatinases, while nitric oxide donors had no noticeable effect. Incubation with peroxynitrite resulted in nitration of MMP-2 and endowed it with collagenolytic activity. Hydrogen peroxide treatment showed a catalase-reversible biphasic effect (gelatinase activation at concentrations of 4 microM, inhibition at > or = 10-50 microM). Thus, reactive oxygen species can modulate matrix degradation in areas of high oxidant stress and could therefore contribute to instability of atherosclerotic plaques.
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            Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin present in red wine, enhances expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

            Estrogens can upregulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells by increasing eNOS promoter activity and enhancing the binding activity of the transcription factor Sp1. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and wine, has been reported to act as an agonist at the estrogen receptor. Therefore, we tested the effect of this putative phytoestrogen on eNOS expression in human endothelial cells. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and HUVEC-derived EA.hy 926 cells with resveratrol for 24 to 72 hours upregulated eNOS mRNA expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (up to 2.8-fold). eNOS protein expression and eNOS-derived NO production were also increased after long-term incubation with resveratrol. Resveratrol increased the activity of the eNOS promoter (3.5-kb fragment) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with the essential trans-stimulated sequence being located in the proximal 263 bp of the promoter sequence. In addition, eNOS mRNA was stabilized by resveratrol. The effect of resveratrol on eNOS expression was not modified by the estrogen receptor antagonists ICI 182780 and RU 58668. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, nuclear extracts from resveratrol-incubated EA.hy 926 cells showed no enhanced binding activity of the eNOS promoter-relevant transcription factors Sp1, GATA, PEA3, YY1, or Elf-1. In addition to its long-term effects on eNOS expression, resveratrol also enhanced the production of bioactive NO in the short-term (after a 2-minute incubation). In concert with other effects, the stimulation of eNOS expression and activity may contribute to the cardiovascular protective effects attributed to resveratrol.
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              Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                August 2008
                20 March 2008
                : 45
                : 5
                : 386-394
                Affiliations
                Institut Gilbert-Laustriat, Département de Pharmacologie et Physicochimie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Louis Pasteur-Strasbourg I, Illkirch, France
                Article
                121408 J Vasc Res 2008;45:386–394
                10.1159/000121408
                18354258
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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