07 March 2007
Background/Aim: Dietary protein restriction is known to be beneficial in the preservation of the renal function in patients with chronic renal failure. Recently, the effect of varying quantity and quality of dietary protein intakes was also studied. This study investigates the effects of different dietary animal proteins on renal function in spontaneously hypercholesterolemic Imai rats that exhibit renal lesions similar to human focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. The sources of proteins were from casein, pork, and fish. Primary concern was the effect of fish meat protein, because the effects of fish oil are well reported. To examine whether remnants of fish oil affect the experimental results, semi-defatted fish meat and fully defatted fish meat were prepared for these experiments. Methods: Forty-two Imai rats were placed on diets containing casein, defatted pork meat, semi-defatted fish meat, or defatted fish meat as a protein sources from 10 to 22 weeks of age. Twenty-four hour urine collections were obtained along with measurements of systolic blood pressure and drawing blood from the tail artery every 4 weeks. Finally, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histological study. Results: The semi-defatted fish meat diet retarded the rise of plasma cholesterol, virtually completely prevented the development of hypertriglyceridemia, and slowed the progression of proteinuria, renal function failure, and glomerular injury as compared with the control casein diet. However, the fully defatted fish meat diet led to renal failure at the same rate as the casein diet. The defatted pork diet group exhibited a higher creatinine clearance at the end of the experiments as compared with the casein and the fully defatted fish meat diet groups. Conclusions: These data suggest that an important determinant of the protective effects of the semi-defatted fish meat diet was related to the prevention of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia by the remaining fish oil. Fish meat protein itself did not indicate superior beneficial effects in the regression of the renal function in Imai rats as compared with casein protein, and defatted pork showed better results than casein and fully defatted fish meat.