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      The ubiquitin-proteasome system

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          Abstract

          The 2004 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the discovery of protein ubiquitination has led to the recognition of cellular proteolysis as a central area of research in biology. Eukaryotic proteins targeted for degradation by this pathway are first 'tagged' by multimers of a protein known as ubiquitin and are later proteolyzed by a giant enzyme known as the proteasome. This article recounts the key observations that led to the discovery of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In addition, different aspects of proteasome biology are highlighted. Finally, some key roles of the UPS in different areas of biology and the use of inhibitors of this pathway as possible drug targets are discussed.

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          Most cited references128

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          Aggresomes: A Cellular Response to Misfolded Proteins

          Intracellular deposition of misfolded protein aggregates into ubiquitin-rich cytoplasmic inclusions is linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Why these aggregates form despite the existence of cellular machinery to recognize and degrade misfolded protein and how they are delivered to cytoplasmic inclusions are not known. We have investigated the intracellular fate of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an inefficiently folded integral membrane protein which is degraded by the cytoplasmic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Overexpression or inhibition of proteasome activity in transfected human embryonic kidney or Chinese hamster ovary cells led to the accumulation of stable, high molecular weight, detergent-insoluble, multiubiquitinated forms of CFTR. Using immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy with immunogold labeling, we demonstrate that undegraded CFTR molecules accumulate at a distinct pericentriolar structure which we have termed the aggresome. Aggresome formation is accompanied by redistribution of the intermediate filament protein vimentin to form a cage surrounding a pericentriolar core of aggregated, ubiquitinated protein. Disruption of microtubules blocks the formation of aggresomes. Similarly, inhibition of proteasome function also prevented the degradation of unassembled presenilin-1 molecules leading to their aggregation and deposition in aggresomes. These data lead us to propose that aggresome formation is a general response of cells which occurs when the capacity of the proteasome is exceeded by the production of aggregation-prone misfolded proteins.
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            Structure of 20S proteasome from yeast at 2.4 A resolution.

            The crystal structure of the 20S proteasome from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that its 28 protein subunits are arranged as an (alpha1...alpha7, beta1...beta7)2 complex in four stacked rings and occupy unique locations. The interior of the particle, which harbours the active sites, is only accessible by some very narrow side entrances. The beta-type subunits are synthesized as proproteins before being proteolytically processed for assembly into the particle. The proforms of three of the seven different beta-type subunits, beta1/PRE3, beta2/PUP1 and beta5/PRE2, are cleaved between the threonine at position 1 and the last glycine of the pro-sequence, with release of the active-site residue Thr 1. These three beta-type subunits have inhibitor-binding sites, indicating that PRE2 has a chymotrypsin-like and a trypsin-like activity and that PRE3 has peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolytic specificity. Other beta-type subunits are processed to an intermediate form, indicating that an additional nonspecific endopeptidase activity may exist which is important for peptide hydrolysis and for the generation of ligands for class I molecules of the major histocompatibility complex.
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              The SCF ubiquitin ligase: insights into a molecular machine.

              Ubiquitin ligases are well suited to regulate molecular networks that operate on a post-translational timescale. The F-box family of proteins - which are the substrate-recognition components of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligase - are important players in many mammalian functions. Here we explore a unifying and structurally detailed view of SCF-mediated proteolytic control of cellular processes that has been revealed by recent studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biosciences
                J. Biosci.
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0250-5991
                0973-7138
                March 2006
                March 1 2006
                March 2006
                : 31
                : 1
                : 137-155
                Article
                10.1007/BF02705243
                16595883
                45418feb-272b-427f-82e2-bba7fc7cb2c3
                © 2006

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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