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      The Molecular Mechanisms Regulating the KEAP1-NRF2 Pathway

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      Molecular and Cellular Biology
      American Society for Microbiology

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          ABSTRACT

          The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway is the principal protective response to oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Under homeostatic conditions, KEAP1 forms part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which tightly regulates the activity of the transcription factor NRF2 by targeting it for ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. In response to stress, an intricate molecular mechanism facilitated by sensor cysteines within KEAP1 allows NRF2 to escape ubiquitination, accumulate within the cell, and translocate to the nucleus, where it can promote its antioxidant transcription program. Recent advances have revealed that KEAP1 contains multiple stress sensors and inactivation modalities, which together allow diverse cellular inputs, from oxidative stress and cellular metabolites to dysregulated autophagy, to regulate NRF2 activity. This integration of the KEAP1-NRF2 system into multiple cellular signaling and metabolic pathways places NRF2 activation as a critical regulatory node in many disease phenotypes and suggests that the pharmaceutical modulation of NRF2’s cytoprotective activity will be beneficial for human health in a broad range of noncommunicable diseases.

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          Most cited references231

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          Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas

          Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number changes, mRNA expression, gene fusions and DNA methylation in 9,125 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we analyzed the mechanisms and patterns of somatic alterations in 10 canonical pathways: cell cycle, Hippo, Myc, Notch, NRF2, PI-3-Kinase/Akt, RTK-RAS, TGFβ signaling, P53 and β-catenin/WNT. We charted the detailed landscape of pathway alterations in 33 cancer types, stratified into 64 subtypes, and identified patterns of co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity. Eighty-nine percent of tumors had at least one driver alteration in these pathways, and 57% percent of tumors had at least one alteration potentially targetable by currently available drugs. Thirty percent of tumors had multiple targetable alterations, indicating opportunities for combination therapy. An integrated analysis of genetic alterations in 10 signaling pathways in >9,000 tumors profiled by TCGA highlights significant representation of individual and co-occurring actionable alterations in these pathways, suggesting opportunities for targeted and combination therapies.
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            Oxidative Stress

            Oxidative stress is two sided: Whereas excessive oxidant challenge causes damage to biomolecules, maintenance of a physiological level of oxidant challenge, termed oxidative eustress, is essential for governing life processes through redox signaling. Recent interest has focused on the intricate ways by which redox signaling integrates these converse properties. Redox balance is maintained by prevention, interception, and repair, and concomitantly the regulatory potential of molecular thiol-driven master switches such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB/IκB is used for system-wide oxidative stress response. Nonradical species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or singlet molecular oxygen, rather than free-radical species, perform major second messenger functions. Chemokine-controlled NADPH oxidases and metabolically controlled mitochondrial sources of H2O2 as well as glutathione- and thioredoxin-related pathways, with powerful enzymatic back-up systems, are responsible for fine-tuning physiological redox signaling. This makes for a rich research field spanning from biochemistry and cell biology into nutritional sciences, environmental medicine, and molecular knowledge-based redox medicine.
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              Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications.

              Diabetes-specific microvascular disease is a leading cause of blindness, renal failure and nerve damage, and diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis leads to increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputation. Four main molecular mechanisms have been implicated in glucose-mediated vascular damage. All seem to reflect a single hyperglycaemia-induced process of overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain. This integrating paradigm provides a new conceptual framework for future research and drug discovery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular and Cellular Biology
                Mol Cell Biol
                American Society for Microbiology
                0270-7306
                1098-5549
                June 15 2020
                June 15 2020
                April 13 2020
                : 40
                : 13
                Article
                10.1128/MCB.00099-20
                7296212
                32284348
                476e1da0-72f2-48e1-84ce-cb217d84faa3
                © 2020
                History

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