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      A Simple Method for Rapid Separation of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle mRNA Reveals Na +/K +-ATPase Alpha-Subunit Distribution in Rat Arteries

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The endothelium has been recognized as a key component in the regulation of blood vessels. We designed a simple procedure to separate endothelial and smooth muscle RNA from rat aorta and mesenteric artery and used this method to establish the distribution of Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup>-ATPase α-subunit isoforms (NaKα1, NaKα2 and NaKα3) within the arterial wall. Methods: Rat aorta was perfused with Tripure, a reagent for RNA isolation, yielding 3 successive RNA fractions (E1–E3) and the remaining tissular RNA (Ao[E–]). A similar procedure was applied to the mesenteric artery. Gene expression was studied by semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Compared to unperfused aorta (Ao[E+]), typical endothelial mRNAs were enriched 3- to 5-fold in E1–E3 but almost absent in Ao[E–], whereas smooth muscle mRNAs were low in E1–E3 but similarly expressed in Ao[E–] and Ao[E+]. NaKα1 was uniformly expressed in all fractions, NaKα2 closely followed the expression pattern of smooth muscle markers and NaKα3 expression was weak and attributable to blood contamination. Comparable results were obtained with the mesenteric artery. Conclusion: We conclude that, in aorta and mesenteric artery, Tripure perfusion allows for a rapid and reliable separation of endothelial mRNA from smooth muscle mRNA, and that endothelium only expresses NaKα1, whereas smooth muscle expresses NaKα1 and NaKα2, but not NaKα3.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Endothelin system: the double-edged sword in health and disease.

          The endothelin system consists of two G-protein-coupled receptors, three peptide ligands, and two activating peptidases. Its pharmacological complexity is reflected by the diverse expression pattern of endothelin system components, which have a variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles. In the vessels, the endothelin system has a basal vasoconstricting role and participates in the development of diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the heart, the endothelin system affects inotropy and chronotropy, and it mediates cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in congestive heart failure. In the lungs, the endothelin system regulates the tone of airways and blood vessels, and it is involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension. In the kidney, it controls water and sodium excretion and acid-base balance, and it participates in acute and chronic renal failure. In the brain, the endothelin system modulates cardiorespiratory centers and the release of hormones. More advanced functional analysis of the endothelin system awaits not only additional pharmacological studies using highly specific endothelin antagonists but also the generation of genetically altered rodent models with conditional loss-of-function and gain-of-function manipulations.
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            Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: location, location, location.

            Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is expressed in vascular endothelium, airway epithelium, and certain other cell types where it generates the key signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Diminished NO availability contributes to systemic and pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, and airway dysfunction. Complex mechanisms underly the cell specificity of eNOS expression, and co- and post-translational processing leads to trafficking of the enzyme to plasma membrane caveolae. Within caveolae, eNOS is the downstream target member of a signaling complex in which it is functionally linked to both typical G protein-coupled receptors and less typical receptors such as estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI displaying novel actions. This compartmentalization facilitates dynamic protein-protein interactions and calcium- and phosphorylation-dependent signal transduction events that modify eNOS activity. Further understanding of these mechanisms will enable us to take preventive and therapeutic advantage of the powerful actions of NO in multiple cell types.
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              Endothelial dysfunction: from physiology to therapy.

              The endothelium controls the tone of the underlying vascular smooth muscle mainly through the production of vasodilator mediators. In some cases, this function is hampered by the release of constrictor substances. The endothelial mediators are also involved in the regulation by the endothelium of vascular architecture and the blood cell-vascular wall interactions. The endothelium-derived factors comprise nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, and a still unknown endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor(s) (EDHF). In most vascular diseases, the vasodilator function of the endothelium is attenuated. In advanced atherosclerotic lesions, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation may even be abolished. Various degrees and forms of endothelial dysfunction exist, including (1) the impairment of Galphai proteins, (2) less release of NO, prostacyclin and/or EDHF, (3) increased release of endoperoxides, (4) increased production of reactive oxygen species, (5) increased generation of endothelin-1, and (6) decreased sensitivity of the vascular smooth muscle to NO, prostacyclin and/or EDHF. The levels of bradykinin and angiotensin II within the vascular wall are controlled by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE degrades bradykinin and generates angiotensin II. Bradykinin stimulates endothelial cells to release vasodilators. The actions of the kinin are maintained despite endothelial dysfunction, except in very severe arterial lesions. Angiotensin II may be in part responsible for endothelial dysfunction because it induces resistance to the vasodilator action of NO. Thus, impairment of the generation of angiotensin II blocks the direct and indirect vasoconstrictor effect of the peptide. By potentiating bradykinin, ACE inhibitors promote the release of relaxing vasodilator mediators to restore vasodilator function, and to prevent platelet aggregation as well as the recruitment of leukocytes to the vascular wall.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2006
                November 2006
                03 November 2006
                : 43
                : 6
                : 502-510
                Affiliations
                Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium
                Article
                95963 J Vasc Res 2006;43:502–510
                10.1159/000095963
                17008770
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 32, Pages: 9
                Categories
                New Methods in Vascular Research

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