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      Senescent cell turnover slows with age providing an explanation for the Gompertz law

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          Abstract

          A causal factor in mammalian aging is the accumulation of senescent cells (SnCs). SnCs cause chronic inflammation, and removing SnCs decelerates aging in mice. Despite their importance, turnover rates of SnCs are unknown, and their connection to aging dynamics is unclear. Here we use longitudinal SnC measurements and induction experiments to show that SnCs turn over rapidly in young mice, with a half-life of days, but slow their own removal rate to a half-life of weeks in old mice. This leads to a critical-slowing-down that generates persistent SnC fluctuations. We further demonstrate that a mathematical model, in which death occurs when fluctuating SnCs cross a threshold, quantitatively recapitulates the Gompertz law of mortality in mice and humans. The model can go beyond SnCs to explain the effects of lifespan-modulating interventions in Drosophila and C. elegans, including scaling of survival-curves and rapid effects of dietary shifts on mortality.

          Abstract

          One of the underlying causes of aging is the accumulation of senescent cells, but their turnover rates and dynamics during ageing are unknown. Here the authors measure and model senescent cell production and removal and explore implications for mortality.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Senescence and tumour clearance is triggered by p53 restoration in murine liver carcinomas.

          Although cancer arises from a combination of mutations in oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, the extent to which tumour suppressor gene loss is required for maintaining established tumours is poorly understood. p53 is an important tumour suppressor that acts to restrict proliferation in response to DNA damage or deregulation of mitogenic oncogenes, by leading to the induction of various cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis or cellular senescence. Consequently, p53 mutations increase cell proliferation and survival, and in some settings promote genomic instability and resistance to certain chemotherapies. To determine the consequences of reactivating the p53 pathway in tumours, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to conditionally regulate endogenous p53 expression in a mosaic mouse model of liver carcinoma. We show that even brief reactivation of endogenous p53 in p53-deficient tumours can produce complete tumour regressions. The primary response to p53 was not apoptosis, but instead involved the induction of a cellular senescence program that was associated with differentiation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. This program, although producing only cell cycle arrest in vitro, also triggered an innate immune response that targeted the tumour cells in vivo, thereby contributing to tumour clearance. Our study indicates that p53 loss can be required for the maintenance of aggressive carcinomas, and illustrates how the cellular senescence program can act together with the innate immune system to potently limit tumour growth.
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            Extension of life-span by loss of CHICO, a Drosophila insulin receptor substrate protein.

            The Drosophila melanogaster gene chico encodes an insulin receptor substrate that functions in an insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, insulin/IGF signaling regulates adult longevity. We found that mutation of chico extends fruit fly median life-span by up to 48% in homozygotes and 36% in heterozygotes. Extension of life-span was not a result of impaired oogenesis in chico females, nor was it consistently correlated with increased stress resistance. The dwarf phenotype of chico homozygotes was also unnecessary for extension of life-span. The role of insulin/IGF signaling in regulating animal aging is therefore evolutionarily conserved.
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              Living on a break: cellular senescence as a DNA-damage response.

              Cellular senescence is associated with ageing and cancer in vivo and has a proven tumour-suppressive function. Common to both ageing and cancer is the generation of DNA damage and the engagement of the DNA-damage response pathways. In this Review, the diverse mechanisms that lead to DNA-damage generation and the activation of DNA-damage-response signalling pathways are discussed, together with the evidence for their contribution to the establishment and maintenance of cellular senescence in the context of organismal ageing and cancer development.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                valery.krizhanovsky@weizmann.ac.il
                uri.alon@weizmann.ac.il
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                2 December 2019
                2 December 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0604 7563, GRID grid.13992.30, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, , Weizmann Institute of Science, ; 76100 Rehovot, Israel
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0604 7563, GRID grid.13992.30, Department of Biological Services, , Weizmann Institute of Science, ; 76100 Rehovot, Israel
                Article
                13192
                10.1038/s41467-019-13192-4
                6889273
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100011271, EC | EC Seventh Framework Programm | FP7 Coordination of Non-Community Research Programmes (FP7-GA - Coordination of Non-Community Research Programmes);
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/100010663, EC | EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020 | H2020 Priority Excellent Science | H2020 European Research Council (H2020 Excellent Science - European Research Council);
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                © The Author(s) 2019

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                senescence, ageing, systems biology, dynamical systems, stochastic modelling

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