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      Thermally stable voltage-controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Mo|CoFeB|MgO structures

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          Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

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            Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set

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              A perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB-MgO magnetic tunnel junction.

              Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with ferromagnetic electrodes possessing a perpendicular magnetic easy axis are of great interest as they have a potential for realizing next-generation high-density non-volatile memory and logic chips with high thermal stability and low critical current for current-induced magnetization switching. To attain perpendicular anisotropy, a number of material systems have been explored as electrodes, which include rare-earth/transition-metal alloys, L1(0)-ordered (Co, Fe)-Pt alloys and Co/(Pd, Pt) multilayers. However, none of them so far satisfy high thermal stability at reduced dimension, low-current current-induced magnetization switching and high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio all at the same time. Here, we use interfacial perpendicular anisotropy between the ferromagnetic electrodes and the tunnel barrier of the MTJ by employing the material combination of CoFeB-MgO, a system widely adopted to produce a giant tunnel magnetoresistance ratio in MTJs with in-plane anisotropy. This approach requires no material other than those used in conventional in-plane-anisotropy MTJs. The perpendicular MTJs consisting of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta show a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, over 120%, high thermal stability at dimension as low as 40 nm diameter and a low switching current of 49 microA.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
                [2 ]Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
                [3 ]Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, California 91330, USA
                [4 ]Inston Inc., Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
                Journal
                Applied Physics Letters
                Appl. Phys. Lett.
                AIP Publishing
                0003-6951
                1077-3118
                October 05 2015
                October 05 2015
                : 107
                : 14
                : 142403
                10.1063/1.4932553
                © 2015
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