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      Difference in Local Lung Movement During Tidal Breathing Between COPD Patients and Asthma Patients Assessed by Four-dimensional Dynamic-ventilation CT Scan

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          The validity of four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT scan for distinguishing COPD from asthma has not been established.


          To assess whether four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT scan can aid in the diagnosis of COPD by comparing local lung movement during tidal breathing between COPD and asthma.

          Patients and Methods

          Thirty-three COPD patients (30 males and three females; median age 74; range 44–89 years) and 11 asthma patients (five males and six females; median age 55; range: 32–75 years) underwent whole-lung dynamic-ventilation CT scan. CT data were reconstructed, one respiratory cycle to 10 phases, and in addtion we reconstructed threefold new phase data sets. We then analyzed local lung movement during tidal breathing using unpaired t-tests and chi-squared tests.


          The local lung movement in COPD patients was significantly smaller than in asthma patients, especially in the ventral part of the lung. This was so even in patients who had mild emphysema (Goddard score <8).


          Quantitative evaluation using four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation CT scan demonstrated that local lung movement during tidal breathing, particularly in the ventral lung, was smaller in COPD than in asthma patients, which may help distinguish COPD from asthma.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software ‘EZR' for medical statistics

           Y Kanda (2012)
          Although there are many commercially available statistical software packages, only a few implement a competing risk analysis or a proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates, which are necessary in studies on hematopoietic SCT. In addition, most packages are not clinician friendly, as they require that commands be written based on statistical languages. This report describes the statistical software ‘EZR' (Easy R), which is based on R and R commander. EZR enables the application of statistical functions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as survival analyses, including competing risk analyses and the use of time-dependent covariates, receiver operating characteristics analyses, meta-analyses, sample size calculation and so on, by point-and-click access. EZR is freely available on our website ( and runs on both Windows (Microsoft Corporation, USA) and Mac OS X (Apple, USA). This report provides instructions for the installation and operation of EZR.
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            Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global health problem, and since 2001, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has published its strategy document for the diagnosis and management of COPD. This executive summary presents the main contents of the second 5-year revision of the GOLD document that has implemented some of the vast knowledge about COPD accumulated over the last years. Today, GOLD recommends that spirometry is required for the clinical diagnosis of COPD to avoid misdiagnosis and to ensure proper evaluation of severity of airflow limitation. The document highlights that the assessment of the patient with COPD should always include assessment of (1) symptoms, (2) severity of airflow limitation, (3) history of exacerbations, and (4) comorbidities. The first three points can be used to evaluate level of symptoms and risk of future exacerbations, and this is done in a way that splits patients with COPD into four categories-A, B, C, and D. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic management of COPD match this assessment in an evidence-based attempt to relieve symptoms and reduce risk of exacerbations. Identification and treatment of comorbidities must have high priority, and a separate section in the document addresses management of comorbidities as well as COPD in the presence of comorbidities. The revised document also contains a new section on exacerbations of COPD. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of all relevant shareholders and will hopefully inspire future national and local guidelines on the management of COPD.
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              Differences in airway remodeling between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              The functional consequence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)is airflow limitation, which is mostly reversible in asthma and not fully reversible in COPD. In both diseases, inflammatory conditions are associated with cellular and structural changes,referred to as remodeling, and these structural changes may lead to thickening of the airway wall, thereby promoting airway narrowing and airflow limitation. However, the pattern of infiltrated cells and the pattern of structural changes occur differently in the two diseases. In asthma, CD4+, T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and mast cells are the predominant cells involved,whereas in COPD, CD8+, T lymphocytes, and macrophages are predominantly involved. In severe cases of asthma and COPD, neutrophil infiltration becomes evident. Regarding structural changes, epithelial injury and early thickening of reticular basement membrane are highly characteristic of the airway wall of asthmatics. Increases in airway smooth muscle mass occur in large airways of severe asthmatics and in small airways of patients with COPD. Thickening of the airway wall, goblet cell hyperplasia, mucous gland hypertrophy, and the luminal obstruction caused by inflammatory exudates and mucous are features of both asthma and COPD. Squamous epithelial metaplasia and airway wall fibrosis are commonly observed characteristics of COPD. Destruction and fibrosis of the alveolar wall occur in COPD but not in asthma. The remodeling processes accompanied by chronic inflammatory infiltrates interact in a complex fashion and contribute to the development of airflow limitation in both asthma and COPD.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                20 November 2020
                : 15
                : 3013-3023
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fujieda Municipal Hospital , Fujieda 426-8677, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Radiology, Fujieda Municipal Hospital , Fujieda 426-8677, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eisuke Mochizuki Tel +81-54-646-1111Fax +81-54-646-1122 Email
                © 2020 Mochizuki et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 16, References: 16, Pages: 11
                Funded by: no funding;
                There is no funding to report.
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                asthma four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation ct, copd


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