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      Acute Renal Failure in Bone Marrow Transplant Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Review of bone marrow transplant (BMT) cases admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) and to compare co-morbidity and outcome of BMT patients developing or not developing acute renal failure (ARF). Methods: A case review of BMT patients admitted to the ICU (a 16-bed medico-surgical ICU in a tertiary care teaching institution) over a 4-year period. Results: Between January 1994 and December 1998, 57 among 441 BMT patients (12.9%) were admitted to the ICU, mainly for respiratory distress (58%) and hypotension (32%). Forty-two patients (73.7%) presented ARF as defined as a doubling of serum creatinine. Compared to the 15 other patients, ARF patients had a higher APACHE II score (30 ± 8 vs. 25 ± 7, p < 0.05). For ARF vs. non-ARF patients, there was no difference in age (43.8 ± 10.8 vs. 44.3 ± 11.1 years), in requirement for mechanical ventilation (76 vs. 73%) and vasopressors (69 vs. 60%), and in prevalence of graft-versus-host disease (19 vs. 13%) or neutropenia (69 vs. 67%), but the prevalence of sepsis (83 vs. 60%) and liver failure (69 vs. 40%) was higher. Maximum serum bilirubin was markedly increased in ARF compared to non-ARF patients (p < 0.005). For both subgroups, no difference in the administration of potential nephrotoxic agents was identified. Usually, ARF was considered multifactorial by clinicians, with ATN being the most frequent diagnosis (55%). Maximum serum creatinine reached a mean of 330 ± 130 µmol/l. In 74% of cases, ARF occurred concomitantly or after admission to the ICU. Oligoanuria was present in 38%, whereas polyuria was observed in 17%. Fourteen ARF patients (33%) required dialytic support. Mortality rates were significantly different in ARF vs. non-ARF patients (88 vs. 60%, p < 0.05). Predictive factors for the development of ARF were liver failure (odds ratio (OR) 5.9), low serum albumin (OR 1.2) and APACHE II score (OR 1.1), whereas variables predictive of mortality were mechanical ventilation (OR 14.8), ARF (OR 5.8), liver failure (OR 3.7), and APACHE II score (OR 1.2). Conclusions: This study confirms that ARF in BMT patients admitted to the ICU is frequent, multifactorial, related to liver failure, and that its development has a negative impact on outcome.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          2002
          April 2002
          08 April 2002
          : 90
          : 4
          : 408-412
          Affiliations
          Departments of Nephrology, Critical Care, and Haematology, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital and Guy-Bernier Research Center, University of Montreal, Que., Canada
          Article
          54728 Nephron 2002;90:408–412
          10.1159/000054728
          11961399
          © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Tables: 6, References: 20, Pages: 5
          Product
          Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/54728
          Categories
          Original Paper

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