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      Identification of the CD4+ T cell as a major pathogenic factor in ischemic acute renal failure

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          High survival rates of kidney transplants from spousal and living unrelated donors.

          In the United States, increasing numbers of persons are donating kidneys to their spouses. Despite greater histoincompatibility, the survival rates of these kidneys are higher than those of cadaveric kidneys. We examined the factors influencing the high survival rates of spousal-donor kidneys. Kidney-transplant data from the United Network for Organ Sharing Renal Transplant Registry were used to calculate graft-survival rates with Kaplan-Meier analysis. The three-year survival rates were 85 percent for kidneys from 368 spouses, 81 percent for kidneys from 129 living unrelated donors who were not married to the recipients, 82 percent for kidneys from 3368 parents, and 70 percent for 43,341 cadaveric kidneys. The three-year survival rate for wife-to-husband grafts was 87 percent, which was the same as for husband-to-wife grafts if the wife had never been pregnant. If the wife had previously been pregnant, the three-year graft-survival rate was 76 percent (P = 0.40). The three-year graft-survival rate among recipients of spousal grafts who did not receive transfusions preoperatively was 81 percent, as compared with 90 percent for recipients who received 1 to 10 transfusions preoperatively (P = 0.008). The superior survival rate of grafts from unrelated donors could not be attributed to better HLA matching, white race, younger donor age, or shorter cold-ischemia times, but might be explained by damage due to shock before removal in 10 percent of the cadaveric kidneys. Spouses are an important source of living-donor kidney grafts because, despite poor HLA matching, the graft-survival rate is similar to that of parental-donor kidneys. This high rate of survival is attributed to the fact that the kidneys were uniformly healthy.
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            Intercellular adhesion molecule-1-deficient mice are protected against ischemic renal injury.

            Studies in the rat have pointed to a role for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the pathogenesis of acute tubular necrosis. These studies used antibodies, which may have nonspecific effects. We report that renal ICAM-1 mRNA levels and systemic levels of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha increase 1 h after ischemia/ reperfusion in the mouse. We sought direct proof for a critical role for ICAM-1 in the pathophysiology of ischemic renal failure using mutant mice genetically deficient in ICAM-1. ICAM-1 is undetectable in mutant mice in contrast with normal mice, in which ICAM-1 is prominent in the endothelium of the vasa recta. Mutant mice are protected from acute renal ischemic injury as judged by serum creatinine, renal histology, and animal survival . Renal leukocyte infiltration, quantitated morphologically and by measuring tissue myeloperoxidase, was markedly less in ICAM-1-deficient than control mice. To evaluate whether prevention of neutrophil infiltration could be responsible for the protection observed in the mutant mice, we treated normal mice with antineutrophil serum to reduce absolute neutrophil counts to < 100 cells/mm3. These neutrophil-depleted animals were protected against ischemic renal failure. Anti-1CAm-1 antibody protected normal mice against renal ischemic injury but did not provide additional protection to neutrophil-depleted animals. Thus, ICAM-1 is a key mediator of ischemic acute renal failure likely acting via potentiation of neutrophilendothelial interactions.
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              An innate sense of danger.

               P Matzinger (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                J. Clin. Invest.
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                November 1 2001
                November 1 2001
                : 108
                : 9
                : 1283-1290
                Article
                10.1172/JCI200112080
                © 2001
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.jci.org/articles/view/12080

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