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Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

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      Biomechanical measures of neuromuscular control and valgus loading of the knee predict anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes: a prospective study.

      Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. Prescreened female athletes with subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury will demonstrate decreased neuromuscular control and increased valgus joint loading, predicting anterior cruciate ligament injury risk. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. There were 205 female athletes in the high-risk sports of soccer, basketball, and volleyball prospectively measured for neuromuscular control using 3-dimensional kinematics (joint angles) and joint loads using kinetics (joint moments) during a jump-landing task. Analysis of variance as well as linear and logistic regression were used to isolate predictors of risk in athletes who subsequently ruptured the anterior cruciate ligament. Nine athletes had a confirmed anterior cruciate ligament rupture; these 9 had significantly different knee posture and loading compared to the 196 who did not have anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Knee abduction angle (P<.05) at landing was 8 degrees greater in anterior cruciate ligament-injured than in uninjured athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament-injured athletes had a 2.5 times greater knee abduction moment (P<.001) and 20% higher ground reaction force (P<.05), whereas stance time was 16% shorter; hence, increased motion, force, and moments occurred more quickly. Knee abduction moment predicted anterior cruciate ligament injury status with 73% specificity and 78% sensitivity; dynamic valgus measures showed a predictive r2 of 0.88. Knee motion and knee loading during a landing task are predictors of anterior cruciate ligament injury risk in female athletes. Female athletes with increased dynamic valgus and high abduction loads are at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. The methods developed may be used to monitor neuromuscular control of the knee joint and may help develop simpler measures of neuromuscular control that can be used to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted interventions.
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        Evaluation of knee ligament surgery results with special emphasis on use of a scoring scale

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          A randomized trial of treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tears.

          The optimal management of a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is unknown. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial involving 121 young, active adults with acute ACL injury in which we compared two strategies: structured rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and structured rehabilitation with the option of later ACL reconstruction if needed. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 2 years in the average score on four subscales of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--pain, symptoms, function in sports and recreation, and knee-related quality of life (KOOS(4); range of scores, 0 [worst] to 100 [best]). Secondary outcomes included results on all five KOOS subscales, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and the score on the Tegner Activity Scale. Of 62 subjects assigned to rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction, 1 did not undergo surgery. Of 59 assigned to rehabilitation plus optional delayed ACL reconstruction, 23 underwent delayed ACL reconstruction; the other 36 underwent rehabilitation alone. The absolute change in the mean KOOS(4) score from baseline to 2 years was 39.2 points for those assigned to rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and 39.4 for those assigned to rehabilitation plus optional delayed reconstruction (absolute between-group difference, 0.2 points; 95% confidence interval, -6.5 to 6.8; P=0.96 after adjustment for the baseline score). There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with respect to secondary outcomes. Adverse events were common in both groups. The results were similar when the data were analyzed according to the treatment actually received. In young, active adults with acute ACL tears, a strategy of rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction was not superior to a strategy of rehabilitation plus optional delayed ACL reconstruction. The latter strategy substantially reduced the frequency of surgical reconstructions. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and the Medical Faculty of Lund University and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84752559.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Journal of ISAKOS: Joint Disorders & Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
            J ISAKOS
            BMJ
            2059-7754
            2059-7762
            February 05 2016
            January 2016
            January 2016
            January 22 2016
            : 1
            : 1
            : 38-52
            10.1136/jisakos-2015-000001
            © 2016

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