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      The impact of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on vascular function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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          Abstract

          Vascular dysfunction is a precursor to the atherosclerotic cascade, significantly increasing susceptibility to cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Previous studies have revealed a strong relationship between vascular function and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Thus, since high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potent method of improving CRF, several small randomized trials have investigated the impact on vascular function of HIIT relative to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT).

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          High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
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            High protonic potential actuates a mechanism of production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria.

            Formation of H2O2 has been studied in rat heart mitochondria, pretreated with H2O2 and aminotriazole to lower their antioxidant capacity. It is shown that the rate of H2O2 formation by mitochondria oxidizing 6 mM succinate is inhibited by a protonophorous uncoupler, ADP and phosphate, malonate, rotenone and myxothiazol, and is stimulated by antimycin A. The effect of ADP is abolished by carboxyatractylate and oligomycin. Addition of uncoupler after rotenone induces further inhibition of H2O2 production. Inhibition of H2O2 formation by uncoupler, malonate and ADP+Pi is shown to be proportional to the delta psi decrease by these compounds. A threshold delta psi value is found, above which a very strong increase in H2O2 production takes place. This threshold slightly exceeds the state 3 delta psi level. The data obtained are in line with the concept [Skulachev, V.P., Q. Rev. Biophys. 29 (1996), 169-2021 that a high proton motive force in state 4 is potentially dangerous for the cell due to an increase in the probability of superoxide formation.
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              Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sports Med
                Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)
                1179-2035
                0112-1642
                May 2015
                : 45
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Rm 535, HMNS Building, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.
                Article
                10.1007/s40279-015-0321-z
                25771785
                4f7b30b8-d1fe-45d4-afe0-3f363e489e9b
                History

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