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      Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

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      Dentistry Journal
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a condition in which bone cells die due to various causes. It is classified as drug-induced jaw osteonecrosis, osteoradionecrosis, traumatic, non-traumatic, and spontaneous osteonecrosis. Antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs cause drug-induced osteonecrosis. The combination of medications, microbial contamination, and local trauma induces this condition. Osteoradionecrosis is a severe radiation therapy side effect that can affect people with head and neck cancer. It is described as an exposed bone area that does not heal for longer than three months after the end of radiation treatment with the absence of any indications of an original tumor, recurrence, or metastasis. Trauma (tooth extraction), tumor site, radiation dose that the patient receives, the area of the bone which is irradiated, oral hygiene, and other factors are risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis. Less frequently, osteonecrosis can also be induced by non-traumatic and traumatic causes. Non-traumatic osteonecrosis is brought on by infections, acquired and congenital disorders, as well as the impact of chemicals. Traumatic osteonecrosis is brought on by thermal, mechanical, or chemical damage. The treatment of osteonecrosis can be conservative, which aims to be beneficial for the patient’s quality of life, and surgical, which involves debridement of the necrotic bone.

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          Most cited references101

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          American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw--2014 update.

          Strategies for management of patients with, or at risk for, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) were set forth in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) position papers in 2007 and 2009. The position papers were developed by a special committee appointed by the board and composed of clinicians with extensive experience in caring for these patients and basic science researchers. The knowledge base and experience in addressing MRONJ has expanded, necessitating modifications and refinements to the previous position paper. This special committee met in September 2013 to appraise the current literature and revise the guidelines as indicated to reflect current knowledge in this field. This update contains revisions to diagnosis, staging, and management strategies and highlights current research status. The AAOMS considers it vitally important that this information be disseminated to other relevant health care professionals and organizations.
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            American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons’ Position Paper on Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws—2022 Update

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              The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process: therapeutic perspective via the antioxidant pathway.

              The radiation-induced fibroatrophic process (RIF) constitutes a late, local and unavoidable sequela to high-dose radiotherapy, traditionally considered irreversible. Today, this process is partly reversible, thanks to recent progress in understanding the physiopathology of the lesions it causes and the results of recent clinical trials using antioxidant therapy. This review includes a synthetic description of the static and dynamic features of the RIF process, as reflected by its clinical, instrumental and histopathological characteristics, and by its cellular and molecular regulation. Schematically, three successive clinical and histopathological phases can be distinguished: a pre-fibrotic aspecific inflammatory phase, a constitutive fibrotic cellular phase, and a matrix densification and remodelling phase, possibly ending in terminal tissular necrosis. The respective roles of the chief actors in the RIF process are defined, as well as their development with time. A fibroblastic stromal hypothesis is suggested revolving around a 'gravitational effect' exerted by the couple ROS (reactive oxygen species)--fibroblasts, and partly mediated by TGF-beta1. A variety of strategies have been tested for the management of RIF. In the light of the mechanisms described, a curative procedure has been proposed via the antioxidant pathway. In particular, it was showed that superoxide dismutase and combined pentoxifylline-tocopherol treatment enables the process of established radiation-induced fibroatrophy to be greatly reduced or even reversed, both in clinical practice and animal experiments. The efficacy of combined pentoxifylline-tocopherol treatment in superficial RIF was confirmed in a randomised clinical trial, and then in successful phase II trials especially in uterine fibroatrophy and osteoradionecrosis. It is of critical importance to evaluate these new management approaches in larger clinical trials and to improve the recording of results for better outcome analysis. Mechanistic studies are always necessary to improve understanding of the RIF process and the antifibrotic drug action.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Dentistry Journal
                Dentistry Journal
                MDPI AG
                2304-6767
                January 2023
                January 09 2023
                : 11
                : 1
                : 23
                Article
                10.3390/dj11010023
                36661560
                5014bb3f-57fd-4f91-9695-cfc54366b0eb
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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