Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a condition in which bone cells die due to various causes. It is classified as drug-induced jaw osteonecrosis, osteoradionecrosis, traumatic, non-traumatic, and spontaneous osteonecrosis. Antiresorptive or antiangiogenic drugs cause drug-induced osteonecrosis. The combination of medications, microbial contamination, and local trauma induces this condition. Osteoradionecrosis is a severe radiation therapy side effect that can affect people with head and neck cancer. It is described as an exposed bone area that does not heal for longer than three months after the end of radiation treatment with the absence of any indications of an original tumor, recurrence, or metastasis. Trauma (tooth extraction), tumor site, radiation dose that the patient receives, the area of the bone which is irradiated, oral hygiene, and other factors are risk factors for the development of osteonecrosis. Less frequently, osteonecrosis can also be induced by non-traumatic and traumatic causes. Non-traumatic osteonecrosis is brought on by infections, acquired and congenital disorders, as well as the impact of chemicals. Traumatic osteonecrosis is brought on by thermal, mechanical, or chemical damage. The treatment of osteonecrosis can be conservative, which aims to be beneficial for the patient’s quality of life, and surgical, which involves debridement of the necrotic bone.