This article reviews literature in the field of ICTs in teaching/learning mathematics at an elementary school level. The findings to date in the field of teaching with technology in mathematics classrooms are very conflictual, with some studies indicating that ICTs impact positively on achievement through altering pedagogy, while other studies indicate that the effect on achievement and pedagogy is in fact negative. The current paper seeks to address the conflictual data by analysing a variety of meta-analyses and studies in order to answer the following questions: Does pedagogy alter with the use of ICTs in grade 6 mathematics classrooms and if so, in what ways does it vary? Secondly, does student achievement in mathematics change with the use of ICTs as teaching tools and if so, in what ways does it do so? Findings from the review indicate that student achievement in mathematics can be positively impacted using technology, depending on the pedagogical practices used by teachers. Technology on its own appears to have no significant impact on student's attainment. There is a dearth of findings regarding pedagogical variation with ICTs outside of a single meta-analysis that indicates that a ‘constructivist’ approach to teaching/learning with technology is the most effective approach to developing students' conceptually. Due to this gap in the literature, the paper outlines a theoretical framework for providing a nuanced study of pedagogical variation with ICTs drawing on Cultural Historical Activity Theory and TPACK that can track pedagogical change along various dimensions.