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      Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers


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          The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth.

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          Biochemical characterization of the human copper transporter Ctr1.

          The trace metal copper is an essential cofactor for a number of biological processes including mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, free radical detoxification, neurotransmitter synthesis and maturation, and iron metabolism. Consequently, copper transport at the cell surface and the delivery of copper to intracellular proteins are critical events in normal physiology. Little is known about the molecules and biochemical mechanisms responsible for copper uptake at the plasma membrane in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that human Ctr1 (hCtr1) is a component of the copper transport machinery at the plasma membrane. hCtr1 transports copper with high affinity in a time-dependent and saturable manner and is metal-specific. hCtr1-mediated (64)Cu transport is an energy-independent process and is stimulated by extracellular acidic pH and high K(+) concentrations. hCtr1 exists as a homomultimer at the plasma membrane in mammalian cells. This is the first report on the biochemical characterization of the human copper transporter hCtr1, which is important for understanding mechanisms for mammalian copper transport at the plasma membrane.
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            The iron transporter DMT1.

            Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) is the first mammalian transmembrane iron transporter to be identified. In 1997, parallel experiments from two groups provided compelling evidence of its function. Fleming and colleagues identified mutations in DMT1 (formerly known as Nramp2 and DCT1) in mice and rats with defects in intestinal iron absorption and red blood cell iron utilization. Gunshin and co-workers (H Gunshin, B MacKenzie, UV Berger, Y Gunshin, MF Romero, WF Boron, S. Nussberger, JL Gollan, MA Hediger, Cloning and characterization of a mammalian proton-coupled metal-ion transporter, Nature 388 (1997) 482-488.) isolated DMT1 through an expression cloning strategy looking for mRNAs that stimulated iron uptake by Xenopus oocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that the twelve transmembrane domain protein DMT1 transfers iron across the apical surface of intestinal cells and out of transferrin cycle endosomes. Human DMT1 may be a good target for pharmacological intervention in patients with iron overload disorders attributable to increased iron absorption.
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              Toxic and essential trace elements in human milk from Greek lactating women: association with dietary habits and other factors.

              The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of some essential and toxic metals in the colostrum and transitory human milk in conjunction with various factors that may influence their concentrations i.e. diet, supplementation, place of residence, smoking, as well as socioeconomic and somatometric characteristics. Zinc, iron, copper, manganese, cadmium and lead were measured by AAS in 180 colostrum samples from healthy lactating women collected on third day postpartum. A second milk sample was collected in 95 (53%) subjects 14 days later. Dietary habits were assessed by a 7-day food frequency questionnaire and various characteristics and socio-economic factors were also recorded. The mean (+/-standard deviation) values of colostrum samples were: Zn 4905 +/- 1725 microg l(-1), Fe 544 +/- 348 microg l(-1), Mn 4.79 +/- 3.23 microg l(-1), Cu 381 +/- 132 microg l(-1), Cd 0.190 +/- 0.150 microg l(-1), Pb 0.48 +/- 0.60 microg l(-1). All metals with the exception of copper were found in lower concentrations in transitory samples. Cadmium and lead weekly intakes were found to be below the Maximum Tolerable Weekly Intakes as they have been established for infants by WHO or NRC. Our results revealed: higher Pb concentration in the samples from urban areas; effect of smoking on Cu level; dietary habits seem to play a role in metal levels in human milk as the logistic regression models revealed.

                Author and article information

                Clin Nutr Res
                Clin Nutr Res
                Clinical Nutrition Research
                The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition
                January 2016
                29 January 2016
                : 5
                : 1
                : 15-25
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Nutrition, The Graduate School of Clinical Health Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.
                [2 ]Food and Nutrition Major, Division of Food Science and Culinary Arts, Shinhan University, Uijeongbu 11644, Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.
                [4 ]Department of Nutritional Sciences and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.
                [5 ]U2 Bio Co. Ltd., 68, Seoul 05755, Korea.
                [6 ]Inuri Medical Group, Seoul 03037, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yuri Kim. Address Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Korea. Tel +82-2-3277-4485, Fax +82-2-3277-2862, yuri.kim@ 123456ewha.ac.kr
                Author information
                © 2016 The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 14 January 2016
                : 19 January 2016
                : 20 January 2016
                Original Article

                human transitional milk,zinc,copper,iron,dietary intake
                human transitional milk, zinc, copper, iron, dietary intake


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