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      Role of Radio-Guided Surgery in Recurrent Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

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          Abstract

          Background: The aim of this paper is to state the role of radio-guided surgery (RGS) in case of recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism. Methods: Two cases of recurrent secondary hyperparathyroidism were treated using RGS. After a preoperative assessment, which included ultrasonography (US), MRI and <sup>99m</sup>Tc-radiolabelled sestamibi scan, a radio-guided neck re-exploration was planned. On the day of surgery the patients underwent a radionuclide injection. After 90 min, surgery began. Results: Dissection was guided by placing the probe in the wound to localize any increased concentration of radioactivity. In the first case the probe identified the gland located deeply in the right tracheo-esophageal groove; in the other case the probe detected a site of increased uptake in the upper mediastinum. Both lesions were dissected and excised; a frozen section confirmed they were parathyroid glands with diffuse hyperplasia. The operative time was less than 60 min in both cases. The patients were discharged on the first postoperative day. A decrease in serum calcium and PTH was observed subsequently. A minimum follow-up of 6 months did not show any recurrence. Conclusion: RGS can help in detecting the parathyroid tissue in selected cases of renal hyperparathyroidism and makes operation much easier and more predictable.

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          Most cited references 4

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          The 20% rule: a simple, instantaneous radioactivity measurement defines cure and allows elimination of frozen sections and hormone assays during parathyroidectomy.

          Although primary hyperparathyroidism is a physiologic disease, surgeons rely on anatomical characteristics (gross and histologic) to determine appropriate operative decisions. After the development of radioguided parathyroidectomy, we hypothesized that the amount of radioactivity contained within resected tissue would be the only information needed to establish the nature of the tissue and to determine a cure for the disease. A total of 1290 tissue specimens were obtained from 345 patients who had sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism. Ex-vivo radioactivity, in counts per second, was measured in parathyroid and other tissues within 3.5 hours of sestamibi injection. Background radioactivity was measured after tissue excision, and ratios were calculated. Lymph nodes, normal parathyroids, and fat never contained more than 2.2% of background radioactivity, whereas thyroid and hyperplastic parathyroids contained 5.5% and 7.5%, respectively, and never more than 16%. In contrast, adenomas contained 59% +/- 9% of background radioactivity (P < .000001 vs all other tissues), with a range of 18% to 136%. Radioactive ratios are an instantaneous measure of metabolic activity, thereby determining parathyroid function. Any excised tissue containing more than 20% of background radioactivity in a patient with a positive sestamibi scan result is a solitary parathyroid adenoma. This alleviates the need to identify other glands, obtain frozen sections, or measure serum parathyroid hormone levels intraoperatively.
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            Surgical significance of supernumerary parathyroid glands in renal hyperparathyroidism.

            In secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) fundamentally all parathyroid glands, including supernumerary glands, become hyperplastic, and stimulation of parathyroid glands continues after parathyroidectomy (PTx). Therefore supernumerary glands have special significance during surgery for 2HPT, whether persistent or recurrent HPT. In the present study 570 patients underwent initial total PTx with a forearm autograft. The frequency, type, location, histopathology, and clinical significance of the supernumerary glands were evaluated. At the initial operation 90 supernumerary glands were removed from 82 to 570 patients (14.4%); 12 patients (2.1%) required extirpation of supernumerary glands for persistent/recurrent HPT. Altogether 104 supernumerary glands were identified at operation in 94 of the 570 patients (16.5%). Among these 104 glands, 25 (24.0%) were of the rudimentary, or split, type and 79 (76.0%) of the proper type. Supernumerary glands were most frequently identified in the thymic tongue (53/104, 51.0%); 32 (60.4%) of these 53 glands were identified only microscopically. In 6 of the 570 cases (1.1%), reoperation was required for persistent HPT due to supernumerary glands located in the mediastinum, and 6 patients underwent neck reexploration for recurrence. Histopathologically, 61 of 104 (58.7%) supernumerary glands, including 36 glands recognized only microscopically, showed diffuse hyperplasia, and 43 (41.3%) displayed nodular hyperplasia. Residual small supernumerary glands with diffuse hyperplasia have the potential to be transformed to nodular hyperplasia during long-term hemodialysis. Therefore all parathyroid glands including supernumerary glands should, if possible, be removed at the initial operation. Routine removal of the thymic tongue and careful examination of the regions surrounding the lower poles of the thyroid, especially on the left side, are important steps in the surgical treatment.
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              Minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy in the reoperative neck.

              Operations for hyperparathyroidism (HPT) in a previously operated neck present a significant challenge and carry much higher morbidity rates than first-time operations. Our extensive experience with minimally invasive radioguided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) for first-time surgery for HPT has shown this method to be a directed approach to the offending adenoma, suggesting that the technique could be used to minimize reoperative neck surgery as well. Over an 11-month period 24 consecutive patients with primary HPT who had undergone at least one previous neck operation were referred for re-exploration. All patients underwent preoperative sestamibi scanning; 21 localized sufficiently to undergo MIRP. All patients were cured after reoperation. Eighteen patients underwent MIRP under local anesthesia as outpatients; 3 MIRPs were done under general anesthesia. Average total operative time was 44 minutes, average incision length was 3.0 cm +/- 0.2 cm. Nineteen of the procedures were completed without any frozen sections. There were no complications. MIRP is extremely effective in patients with HPT who have undergone previous neck exploration for parathyroid or thyroid disease. The technique allows for such a directed dissection that smaller incisions and local anesthesia in an outpatient setting are routine.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                25 April 2001
                : 88
                : 1
                : 36-38
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of General Surgery, University of Ferrara and Departments of bNuclear Medicine and cNephrology, S. Anna Hospital, Ferrara, Italy
                Article
                45956 Nephron 2001;88:36–38
                10.1159/000045956
                11340348
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 11, Pages: 3
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45956
                Categories
                Original Paper

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