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      Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge


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          Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance.

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          Evolution by gene duplication: an update

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            Superoxide Dismutase and Stress Tolerance

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              Gene duplication and evolutionary novelty in plants.

              Duplication is a prominent feature of plant genomic architecture. This has led many researchers to speculate that gene duplication may have played an important role in the evolution of phenotypic novelty within plants. Until recently, however, it was difficult to make this connection. We are now beginning to understand how duplication has contributed to adaptive evolution in plants. In this review we introduce the sources of gene duplication and predictions of the various fates of duplicates. We also highlight several recent and pertinent examples from the literature. These examples demonstrate the importance of the functional characteristics of genes and the source of duplication in influencing evolutionary outcome.

                Author and article information

                Pest Manag Sci
                Pest Manag. Sci
                Pest Management Science
                John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (Chichester, UK )
                September 2014
                12 March 2014
                : 70
                : 9
                : 1367-1377
                [a ]Monsanto Company St Louis, MO, USA
                [b ]Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO, USA
                Author notes
                *Correspondence to: R Douglas Sammons, Monsanto Company, St Louis, MO, USA. E-mail: r.douglas.sammons@ 123456monsanto.com
                © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                : 05 November 2013
                : 17 January 2014
                : 25 January 2014

                Pests, Diseases & Weeds
                vacuole sequestration,gene duplication,gene amplification,epsps (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase),31p nmr,glyphosate,restricted translocation,reduced translocation,group g herbicides,herbicide resistance


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