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Alterations of metabolic activity in human osteoarthritic osteoblasts by lipid peroxidation end product 4-hydroxynonenal

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      4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation end product, is produced abundantly in osteoarthritic (OA) articular tissues, but its role in bone metabolism is ill-defined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in OA osteoblast metabolism are attributed, in part, to increased levels of HNE. Our data showed that HNE/protein adduct levels were higher in OA osteoblasts compared to normal and when OA osteoblasts were treated with H2O2. Investigating osteoblast markers, we found that HNE increased osteocalcin and type I collagen synthesis but inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. We next examined the effects of HNE on the signaling pathways controlling cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in view of their putative role in OA pathophysiology. HNE dose-dependently decreased basal and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced IL-6 expression while inducing COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release. In a similar pattern, HNE induces changes in osteoblast markers as well as PGE2 and IL-6 release in normal osteoblasts. Upon examination of signaling pathways involved in PGE2 and IL-6 production, we found that HNE-induced PGE2 release was abrogated by SB202190, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. Overexpression of p38 MAPK enhanced HNE-induced PGE2 release. In this connection, HNE markedly increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, JNK2, and transcription factors (CREB-1, ATF-2) with a concomitant increase in the DNA-binding activity of CRE/ATF. Transfection experiments with a human COX-2 promoter construct revealed that the CRE element (-58/-53 bp) was essential for HNE-induced COX-2 promoter activity. However, HNE inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα and subsequently the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB. Overexpression of IKKα increased TNF-α-induced IL-6 production. This induction was inhibited when TNF-α was combined with HNE. These findings suggest that HNE may exert multiple effects on human OA osteoblasts by selective activation of signal transduction pathways and alteration of osteoblastic phenotype expression and pro-inflammatory mediator production.

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      Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid.

      Bicinchoninic acid, sodium salt, is a stable, water-soluble compound capable of forming an intense purple complex with cuprous ion (Cu1+) in an alkaline environment. This reagent forms the basis of an analytical method capable of monitoring cuprous ion produced in the reaction of protein with alkaline Cu2+ (biuret reaction). The color produced from this reaction is stable and increases in a proportional fashion over a broad range of increasing protein concentrations. When compared to the method of Lowry et al., the results reported here demonstrate a greater tolerance of the bicinchoninate reagent toward such commonly encountered interferences as nonionic detergents and simple buffer salts. The stability of the reagent and resulting chromophore also allows for a simplified, one-step analysis and an enhanced flexibility in protocol selection. This new method maintains the high sensitivity and low protein-to-protein variation associated with the Lowry technique.
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        Osf2/Cbfa1: a transcriptional activator of osteoblast differentiation.

        The osteoblast is the bone-forming cell. The molecular basis of osteoblast-specific gene expression and differentiation is unknown. We previously identified an osteoblast-specific cis-acting element, termed OSE2, in the Osteocalcin promoter. We have now cloned the cDNA encoding Osf2/Cbfa1, the protein that binds to OSE2. Osf2/Cbfa1 expression is initiated in the mesenchymal condensations of the developing skeleton, is strictly restricted to cells of the osteoblast lineage thereafter, and is regulated by BMP7 and vitamin D3. Osf2/Cbfa1 binds to and regulates the expression of multiple genes expressed in osteoblasts. Finally, forced expression of Osf2/Cbfa1 in nonosteoblastic cells induces the expression of the principal osteoblast-specific genes. This study identifies Osf2/Cbfa1 as an osteoblast-specific transcription factor and as a regulator of osteoblast differentiation.
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          Chemistry and biochemistry of 4-hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes.

          Lipid peroxidation often occurs in response to oxidative stress, and a great diversity of aldehydes are formed when lipid hydroperoxides break down in biological systems. Some of these aldehydes are highly reactive and may be considered as second toxic messengers which disseminate and augment initial free radical events. The aldehydes most intensively studied so far are 4-hydroxynonenal, 4-hydroxyhexenal, and malonaldehyde. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary on the chemical properties of these aldehydes, the mechanisms of their formation and their occurrence in biological systems and methods for their determination. We will also review the reactions of 4-hydroxyalkenals and malonaldehyde with biomolecules (amino acids, proteins, nucleic acid bases), their metabolism in isolated cells and excretion in whole animals, as well as the many types of biological activities described so far, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, chemotactic activity, and effects on cell proliferation and gene expression. Structurally related compounds, such as acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and other 2-alkenals are also briefly discussed, since they have some properties in common with 4-hydroxyalkenals.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Sacre-Coeur Hospital, University of Montreal, 5400 Gouin West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4J 1C5
            Arthritis Res Ther
            Arthritis Research & Therapy
            BioMed Central (London )
            16 October 2006
            : 8
            : 6
            : R159
            Copyright © 2006 Shi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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