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      Sulfated Hyaluronic Acid, a Potential Selectin Inhibitor, Ameliorates Experimentally Induced Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

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          Background/Aims: Sulfated polysaccharides are known to interfere with the binding of selectins and their ligands. Recently, we demonstrated that sulfated hyaluronic acid (SHA), a synthetic sulfated polysaccharide, showed preventive and therapeutic effects on experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Here we evaluated the protective potential of SHA on crescentic glomerulonephritis, using nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Methods: Crescentic glomerulonephritis was induced by injection of NTS in WKY rats. Rats subsequently received intraperitoneal administration of SHA (0.5 or 1.5 mg/kg/day) or non-sulfated hyaluronic acid (HA) (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. The urinary protein excretion was measured, and expression of selectins, intraglomerular leukocytes and crescent formation were examined by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we examined the urinary protein excretion of SHA (1.5 mg/kg/day) administered from day 7 after the induction of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Results: The expression of P-selectin was increased in the glomerulus of crescentic glomerulonephritis. SHA reduced proteinuria, macrophage infiltration, and crescent formation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, administration of SHA (1.5 mg/kg/day) from day 7 also reduced the urinary protein excretion on day 14 compared with that in saline and HA group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that SHA inhibits intraglomerular infiltration of macrophages, and prevents progression of experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis. Sulfated polysaccharides might be beneficial for the treatment of crescentic glomerulonephritis.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Leukocyte rolling and extravasation are severely compromised in P selectin-deficient mice.

          P selectin, expressed on surfaces of activated endothelial cells and platelets, is an adhesion receptor for leukocytes. We report that P selectin-deficient mice, generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, exhibit a number of defects in leukocyte behavior, including elevated numbers of circulating neutrophils, virtually total absence of leukocyte rolling in mesenteric venules, and delayed recruitment of neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity upon experimentally induced inflammation. These results clearly demonstrate a role for P selectin in leukocyte interactions with the vessel wall and in the early steps of leukocyte recruitment at sites of inflammation. These mutant mice should prove useful in deciphering the contributions of P selectin in various inflammatory responses as well as in platelet functions.
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              Efomycine M, a new specific inhibitor of selectin, impairs leukocyte adhesion and alleviates cutaneous inflammation.

              Specific interference with molecular mechanisms guiding tissue localization of leukocytes may be of great utility for selective immunosuppressive therapies. We have discovered and characterized efomycines, a new family of selective small-molecule inhibitors of selectin functions. Members of this family significantly inhibited leukocyte adhesion in vitro. Efomycine M, which was nontoxic and showed the most selective inhibitory effects on selectin-mediated leukocyte-endothelial adhesion in vitro, significantly diminished rolling in mouse ear venules in vivo as seen by intravital microscopy. In addition, efomycine M alleviated cutaneous inflammation in two complementary mouse models of psoriasis, one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorders. Molecular modeling demonstrated a spatial conformation of efomycines mimicking naturally occurring selectin ligands. Efomycine M might be efficacious in the treatment of human inflammatory disorders through a similar mechanism.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                14 January 2005
                : 99
                : 1
                : e26-e32
                aDepartment of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Okayama, and bDepartment of Pharmaceutics, Research Center, Shiseido Corporation, Tokyo, Japan
                81795 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;99:e26–e32
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 1
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