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      Influence of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Symptoms and Signs of Premenstrual Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study

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          Abstract

          Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in brain may cause some symptoms that resemble those in women with premenstrual syndrome. To determine the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome, we examined 489 women aged 30–40 years old. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti- Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) and T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

          Anti- T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 38 (7.8%) of the women studied. Anti- T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 IgG seropositive women. Logistic regression showed two variables associated with seropositivity to T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–27.85; P = 0.01) and weight gain (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.37–6.07; P = 0.005), and two variables associated with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of IgG against T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (OR = 7.40; 95% CI: 1.79–30.46; P = 0.006) and abdominal inflammation (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.13–10.10; P = 0.02). Positivity to EIA IgG and PCR was positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with joint pain by bivariate analysis.

          Our study for the first time reveals a potential association of T. gondii infection with clinical manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.

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          Most cited references 54

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          Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts.

           J Dubey,  D S Lindsay,  C Speer (1998)
          Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent world-wide in animals and humans. This paper reviews the life cycle; the structure of tachyzoites, bradyzoites, oocysts, sporocysts, sporozoites and enteroepithelial stages of T. gondii; and the mode of penetration of T. gondii. The review provides a detailed account of the biology of tissue cysts and bradyzoites including in vivo and in vitro development, methods of separation from host tissue, tissue cyst rupture, and relapse. The mechanism of in vivo and in vitro stage conversion from sporozoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites and from bradyzoites to tachyzoites to bradyzoites is also discussed.
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            A review on human toxoplasmosis.

            Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population are infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the foetus, or even cause death in uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of retinochoroiditis, especially in individuals with an impaired immune system. Despite the usually 'asymptomatic' nature of the infection, a significant burden imposed by the parasite necessitates the implementation of effective means for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of this disease. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. PCR and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. Here, we briefly review general aspects of Toxoplasma infection and focus on the diagnostic methods currently used in medical laboratories for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection.
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              Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in general population in a northern Mexican city.

              There is a lack of information about the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in the general population of Durango City, Mexico. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 974 inhabitants in Durango City, Mexico with the use of enzyme-linked immunoassays. in total, 59 (6.1%) of 974 participants (mean age 37 ± 16.1 yr) had IgG anti- T. gondii antibodies. Twenty (2.1%) of them also had IgM anti- T. gondii antibodies. IgG levels of 13-99, 100-150, and >150 International Units (IU)/ml were found in 14 (23.7%), 3 (5.1%), and 42 (71.2%) anti- T. gondii IgG-positive participants, respectively. Prevalence of infection increased with age (P < 0.05), and was significantly lower in participants born in Durango State than those born in other Mexican states (P < 0.01). Toxoplasma gondii infection was significantly associated with consumption of boar meat (adjusted odds ratio [OR]  =  3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.49-6.13), and squirrel meat (adjusted OR  =  2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.09). in addition, infection was negatively associated with travel abroad (adjusted OR  =  0.42; 95% CI: 0.23-0.77), and salami consumption (adjusted OR  =  0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99). This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for T. gondii infection in general population in Durango City, and of an association of the consumption of boar meat with T. gondii infection. This study provides a basis for the design of successful preventive measures against T. gondii infection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                03 November 2016
                01 December 2016
                : 6
                : 4
                : 298-305
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
                [2 ]Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera Damm”, Juárez University of Durango State. Avenida Universidad S/N , 34000 Durango, Durango, Mexico
                [3 ]Health Center No. 2 “Dr. Carlos Santamaría”, Servicios de Salud de Durango , Durango, Mexico, Talpa S/N, 34170 Durango, Mexico
                [4 ]Clínica de Medicina Familiar, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado , Predio Canoas S/N, 34079 Durango, Mexico
                [5 ]Institute for Microbiology and Hygiene, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité Medical School , Hindenburgdamm 27, D-12203 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                * Laboratorio de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina y Nutrición, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, México; 0052-618-8130527; alvaradocosme@ 123456yahoo.com

                ** Current address: Medical and Scientific Affairs, Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA

                Competing interests The authors declare that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2016.00030
                5146648
                © 2016, The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 8
                Funding
                Funding source: This study was financially supported by Secretary of Public Education, Mexico (Grant No. DSA/103.5/14/11311).
                Categories
                Original Article

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