Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Vitamin C in Chronic Kidney Disease and Hemodialysis Patients

      ,

      Kidney and Blood Pressure Research

      S. Karger AG

      Vitamin C, Oxidative stress, Chronic kidney disease

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Increments of oxidative stress have been addressed as one potential cause for the accelerated atherosclerosis of chronic kidney disease patients. Ascorbate represents one of the most prominent antioxidants both in plasma as well as intracellulary, exerting beneficial effects by an inhibition of lipid peroxidation and by reducing endothelial dysfunction. However, in the presence of transition metals like iron, ascorbate may give rise to an increased generation of oxidants, and ascorbylation may impose additional carbonyl stress to uremic patients. Unsupplemented dialysis patients have reportedly lower plasma levels of ascorbate in comparison to healthy controls, mostly due to a loss into the dialysate or, in case of not dialyzed patients, increased urinary losses. Currently, 60 mg of ascorbate are recommended for chronic kidney disease patients, and 1–1.5 g of oral ascorbate/week in case of suspected subclinical ascorbate deficiency or 300 mg parenteral ascorbate/dialysis session, respectively. Ascorbate’s role in modifying arterial blood pressure remains unclear, but anemic patients with functional iron deficiency might benefit from short-term, moderately dosed ascorbate supplements.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 15

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbate.

          Free radicals vary widely in their thermodynamic properties, ranging from very oxidizing to very reducing. These thermodynamic properties can be used to predict a pecking order, or hierarchy, for free radical reactions. Using one-electron reduction potentials, the predicted pecking order is in agreement with experimentally observed free radical electron (hydrogen atom) transfer reactions. These potentials are also in agreement with experimental data that suggest that vitamin E, the primary lipid soluble small molecule antioxidant, and vitamin C, the terminal water soluble small molecule antioxidant, cooperate to protect lipids and lipid structures against peroxidation. Although vitamin E is located in membranes and vitamin C is located in aqueous phases, vitamin C is able to recycle vitamin E; i.e., vitamin C repairs the tocopheroxyl (chromanoxyl) radical of vitamin E, thereby permitting vitamin E to function again as a free radical chain-breaking antioxidant. This review discusses: (i) the thermodynamics of free radical reactions that are of interest to the health sciences; (ii) the fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic properties that are associated with chain-breaking antioxidants; (iii) the unique interfacial nature of the apparent reaction of the tocopherol free radical (vitamin E radical) and vitamin C; and (iv) presents a hierarchy, or pecking order, for free radical electron (hydrogen atom) transfer reactions.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of antioxidant vitamin supplementation in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

              (2002)
            It has been suggested that increased intake of various antioxidant vitamins reduces the incidence rates of vascular disease, cancer, and other adverse outcomes. 20,536 UK adults (aged 40-80) with coronary disease, other occlusive arterial disease, or diabetes were randomly allocated to receive antioxidant vitamin supplementation (600 mg vitamin E, 250 mg vitamin C, and 20 mg beta-carotene daily) or matching placebo. Intention-to-treat comparisons of outcome were conducted between all vitamin-allocated and all placebo-allocated participants. An average of 83% of participants in each treatment group remained compliant during the scheduled 5-year treatment period. Allocation to this vitamin regimen approximately doubled the plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol, increased that of vitamin C by one-third, and quadrupled that of beta-carotene. Primary outcomes were major coronary events (for overall analyses) and fatal or non-fatal vascular events (for subcategory analyses), with subsidiary assessments of cancer and of other major morbidity. There were no significant differences in all-cause mortality (1446 [14.1%] vitamin-allocated vs 1389 [13.5%] placebo-allocated), or in deaths due to vascular (878 [8.6%] vs 840 [8.2%]) or non-vascular (568 [5.5%] vs 549 [5.3%]) causes. Nor were there any significant differences in the numbers of participants having non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death (1063 [10.4%] vs 1047 [10.2%]), non-fatal or fatal stroke (511 [5.0%] vs 518 [5.0%]), or coronary or non-coronary revascularisation (1058 [10.3%] vs 1086 [10.6%]). For the first occurrence of any of these "major vascular events", there were no material differences either overall (2306 [22.5%] vs 2312 [22.5%]; event rate ratio 1.00 [95% CI 0.94-1.06]) or in any of the various subcategories considered. There were no significant effects on cancer incidence or on hospitalisation for any other non-vascular cause. Among the high-risk individuals that were studied, these antioxidant vitamins appeared to be safe. But, although this regimen increased blood vitamin concentrations substantially, it did not produce any significant reductions in the 5-year mortality from, or incidence of, any type of vascular disease, cancer, or other major outcome.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Long-term vitamin C treatment increases vascular tetrahydrobiopterin levels and nitric oxide synthase activity.

              In cultured endothelial cells, the antioxidant, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), increases nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme activity via chemical stabilization of tetrahydrobiopterin. Our objective was to determine the effect of vitamin C on NOS function and tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism in vivo. Twenty-six to twenty-eight weeks of diet supplementation with vitamin C (1%/kg chow) significantly increased circulating levels of vitamin C in wild-type (C57BL/6J) and apolipoprotein E (apoE)--deficient mice. Measurements of NOS enzymatic activity in aortas of apoE-deficient mice indicated a significant increase in total NOS activity. However, this increase was mainly due to high activity of inducible NOS, whereas eNOS activity was reduced. Significantly higher tetrahydrobiopterin levels were detected in aortas of apoE-deficient mice. Long-term treatment with vitamin C restored endothelial NOS activity in aortas of apoE-deficient mice, but did not affect activity of inducible NOS. In addition, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin levels, an oxidized form of tetrahydrobiopterin, were decreased and vascular endothelial function of aortas was significantly improved in apoE-deficient mice. Interestingly, vitamin C also increased tetrahydrobiopterin and NOS activity in aortas of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, long-term treatment with vitamin E (2000 U/kg chow) did not affect vascular NOS activity or metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin. In vivo, beneficial effect of vitamin C on vascular endothelial function appears to be mediated in part by protection of tetrahydrobiopterin and restoration of eNOS enzymatic activity.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7600-0
                978-3-318-00991-0
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2003
                2003
                05 June 2003
                : 26
                : 2
                : 100-106
                Affiliations
                Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin III, Klinische Abteilung für Nephrologie und Dialyse, Wien, Österreich
                Article
                70991 Kidney Blood Press Res 2003;26:100–106
                10.1159/000070991
                12771534
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 78, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/70991
                Categories
                Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Chronic kidney disease, Oxidative stress, Vitamin C

                Comments

                Comment on this article