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      Integrating mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis

      review-article
      The Journal of Experimental Medicine
      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          Pulmonary fibrosis is a complex and heterogeneous disease; a more detailed and integrated understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms influencing its pathogenesis will aid the design of new therapies.

          Abstract

          Pulmonary fibrosis is a highly heterogeneous and lethal pathological process with limited therapeutic options. Although research on the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis has frequently focused on the mechanisms that regulate the proliferation, activation, and differentiation of collagen-secreting myofibroblasts, recent studies have identified new pathogenic mechanisms that are critically involved in the initiation and progression of fibrosis in a variety of settings. A more detailed and integrated understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis could help pave the way for effective therapeutics for this devastating and complex disease.

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          Most cited references112

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          MicroRNA-21 is an antiapoptotic factor in human glioblastoma cells.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that regulate protein expression by targeting the mRNA of protein-coding genes for either cleavage or repression of translation. The roles of miRNAs in lineage determination and proliferation as well as the location of several miRNA genes at sites of translocation breakpoints or deletions has led to the speculation that miRNAs could be important factors in the development or maintenance of the neoplastic state. Here we show that the highly malignant human brain tumor, glioblastoma, strongly over-expresses a specific miRNA, miR-21. Our studies show markedly elevated miR-21 levels in human glioblastoma tumor tissues, early-passage glioblastoma cultures, and in six established glioblastoma cell lines (A172, U87, U373, LN229, LN428, and LN308) compared with nonneoplastic fetal and adult brain tissues and compared with cultured nonneoplastic glial cells. Knockdown of miR-21 in cultured glioblastoma cells triggers activation of caspases and leads to increased apoptotic cell death. Our data suggest that aberrantly expressed miR-21 may contribute to the malignant phenotype by blocking expression of critical apoptosis-related genes.
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            Transforming growth factor beta in tissue fibrosis.

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              Common and unique mechanisms regulate fibrosis in various fibroproliferative diseases.

              Fibroproliferative diseases, including the pulmonary fibroses, systemic sclerosis, liver cirrhosis, cardiovascular disease, progressive kidney disease, and macular degeneration, are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and can affect all tissues and organ systems. Fibrotic tissue remodeling can also influence cancer metastasis and accelerate chronic graft rejection in transplant recipients. Nevertheless, despite its enormous impact on human health, there are currently no approved treatments that directly target the mechanism(s) of fibrosis. The primary goals of this Review series on fibrotic diseases are to discuss some of the major fibroproliferative diseases and to identify the common and unique mechanisms of fibrogenesis that might be exploited in the development of effective antifibrotic therapies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                4 July 2011
                : 208
                : 7
                : 1339-1350
                Affiliations
                Program in Barrier Immunity and Repair and the Immunopathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Thomas A. Wynn: twynn@ 123456niaid.nih.gov
                Article
                20110551
                10.1084/jem.20110551
                3136685
                21727191
                5aa929f6-ee19-4a94-a4ea-bd45bf28d366

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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