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      Use of Animal Models in Understanding Cancer-induced Bone Pain

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          Many common cancers have a propensity to metastasize to bone. Although malignancies often go undetected in their native tissues, bone metastases produce excruciating pain that severely compromises patient quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is poorly managed with existing medications, and its multifaceted etiology remains to be fully elucidated. Novel analgesic targets arise as more is learned about this complex and distinct pain state. Over the past two decades, multiple animal models have been developed to study CIBP’s unique pathology and identify therapeutic targets. Here, we review animal models of CIBP and the mechanistic insights gained as these models evolve. Findings from immunocompromised and immunocompetent host systems are discussed separately to highlight the effect of model choice on outcome. Gaining an understanding of the unique neuromolecular profile of cancer pain through the use of appropriate animal models will aid in the development of more effective therapeutics for CIBP.

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              Osteoclasts are specialized cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage haematopoietic lineage that develop and adhere to bone matrix, then secrete acid and lytic enzymes that degrade it in a specialized, extracellular compartment. Discovery of the RANK signalling pathway in the osteoclast has provided insight into the mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis and activation of bone resorption, and how hormonal signals impact bone structure and mass. Further study of this pathway is providing the molecular basis for developing therapeutics to treat osteoporosis and other diseases of bone loss.

                Author and article information

                Cancer Growth Metastasis
                Cancer Growth Metastasis
                Cancer Growth and Metastasis
                Cancer Growth and Metastasis
                Libertas Academica
                23 August 2015
                : 8
                : Suppl 1
                : 47-62
                Department of Medical Pharmacology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA.
                Author notes
                © 2015 the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC 3.0 License.



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