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      High Glucose Increases Inducible NO Production in Cultured Rat Mesangial Cells

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Increased nitric oxide (NO) generation and action have been suggested to be associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and increased vascular permeability early in diabetes. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) pathway present in endothelial cells, and the role of the inducible NOS (iNOS) pathway in diabetic nephropathy has remained unclear. This study examined whether high glucose modulates NO synthesis by the iNOS pathway in rat mesangial cells. In addition, the effect of inhibition of the iNOS pathway on fibronectin production was determined to examine the role of the iNOS pathway in high glucose-induced extracellular expansion by mesangial cells. Methods: NO synthesis by the iNOS pathway was evaluated by nitrite and iNOS mRNA and protein productions. The effects of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and aldose reductase inhibitor on the iNOS mRNA expression and aminoguanidine, a relatively specific inhibitor of the iNOS on fibronectin protein production were examined. Results: High 30 m M glucose concentration led to significant increases in nitrite production of rat mesangial cells upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) compared with control 5.6 m M glucose concentration. Mesangial iNOS mRNA expression and protein production also increased significantly in response to high glucose. The addition of calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor, and 6-bromo-1,3-dioxo-1H-benz[d,e]isoquinoline-2(3H)-acetic acid, an aldose reductase inhibitor, significantly suppressed the enhancement of iNOS mRNA expression in high glucose concentration. High glucose also significantly increased fibronectin protein production of mesangial cells upon stimulation with LPS plus IFN-γ compared to control glucose. Aminoguanidine reversed this high glucose-induced fibronectin production at dose inhibiting iNOS mRNA expression. Conclusions: These results indicate that high glucose enhances cytokine-induced NO production by rat mesangial cells, and that the activation of PKC and aldose reductase pathway may play a role in this enhancement. In addition, high glucose-induced NO production by the iNOS pathway may promote extracellular matrix accumulation by mesangial cells under certain condition.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Sequential effects of high glucose on mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta 1 and fibronectin synthesis.

             David J. Oh,  J. Yu,  E Ha (1998)
            Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is recognized as the final common mediator of the principal lesions of diabetic nephropathy such as renal hypertrophy and mesangial expansion. To gain better understanding of the temporal relationships between high glucose (HG) and mesangial cell (MC) TGF-beta 1 synthesis and between TGF-beta 1 and extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis, the present study examined early and sequential effects of HG on TGF-beta 1 and fibronectin (FN) mRNA expression and protein synthesis. Confluent primary rat MC was stimulated with 5.6 (control) or 30 (high) mM glucose after synchronizing the growth by incubation with serum-free media for 48 hours. Mesangial cell TGF-beta 1 mRNA expression increased significantly in six hours and continued to increase until 48 hours in response to HG. The level of TGF-beta 1 mRNA was 1.5-fold higher than that of control glucose at six hours and 1.8-fold at 48 hours. TGF-beta activity in heat-activated conditioned media under HG increased 1.5- and 1.6-fold at 24 and 48 hours, respectively, compared to control glucose. FN mRNA increased significantly at 24 and 48 hours and 1.4-fold that of control glucose at both time points. FN protein also increased 1.5-fold that of control glucose at 48 hours. Anti-TGF-beta antibody completely abolished HG-induced FN synthesis. The present finding demonstrate that HG stimulates TGF-beta 1 very early and prior to FN production and that HG-induced FN production is mediated by TGF-beta. This finding is consistent with the view that TGF-beta mediates increased ECM accumulation by MC under high glucose conditions.
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              Expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase in human glomerulonephritis.

              The presence of nitric oxide (NO) in the kidney has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human glomerulonephritis. However, the exact type of glomerular cells that express NO synthase (NOS) and the NOS isoform involved in the local production of NO has not been identified in the human diseased kidney. We examined the expression of three isoforms of NOS, inducible NOS (iNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS) and brain NOS (bNOS) in the renal tissue of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN, N = 10), lupus nephritis (LN, N = 5), membranous nephropathy (MN, N = 5) and minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS, N = 5). Sections were immunostained and the correlation between the expression of each NOS and the degree of glomerular injury in that section was also examined. Normal portions of surgically resected kidneys served as controls. eNOS was present in glomerular endothelial cells and endothelium of cortical vessels in the control and diseased kidneys. iNOS was localized in mesangial cells, glomerular epithelial cells and infiltrating cells in the diseased glomeruli, whereas immunostaining for iNOS was hardly detected in control kidneys. In addition, the expression pattern of eNOS in each glomerulus was the reverse of that of iNOS. In IgAN and LN, the extent of staining for eNOS correlated negatively with the degree of glomerular injury, while the extent of staining for iNOS correlated positively with the degree of glomerular injury in the same tissues. bNOS was not detected in normal or nephritic glomeruli. Our results indicate the presence of a NO pathway in human diseased kidney, and suggest that NO derived from eNOS and iNOS may be involved in the progression of renal diseases and that NO derived from each NOS may play an important role in different way in human inflamed glomeruli.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2002
                2002
                13 December 2001
                : 90
                : 1
                : 78-85
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, and bDepartment of Pharmacology, Institute of Kidney Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Article
                46318 Nephron 2002;90:78–85
                10.1159/000046318
                11744809
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 46, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46318
                Categories
                Original Paper

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