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      MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets

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      Molecular Biology and Evolution
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Abstract

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.

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          Is Open Access

          Tree of Life Reveals Clock-Like Speciation and Diversification

          Genomic data are rapidly resolving the tree of living species calibrated to time, the timetree of life, which will provide a framework for research in diverse fields of science. Previous analyses of taxonomically restricted timetrees have found a decline in the rate of diversification in many groups of organisms, often attributed to ecological interactions among species. Here, we have synthesized a global timetree of life from 2,274 studies representing 50,632 species and examined the pattern and rate of diversification as well as the timing of speciation. We found that species diversity has been mostly expanding overall and in many smaller groups of species, and that the rate of diversification in eukaryotes has been mostly constant. We also identified, and avoided, potential biases that may have influenced previous analyses of diversification including low levels of taxon sampling, small clade size, and the inclusion of stem branches in clade analyses. We found consistency in time-to-speciation among plants and animals, ∼2 My, as measured by intervals of crown and stem species times. Together, this clock-like change at different levels suggests that speciation and diversification are processes dominated by random events and that adaptive change is largely a separate process.
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            Estimating divergence times in large molecular phylogenies.

            Molecular dating of species divergences has become an important means to add a temporal dimension to the Tree of Life. Increasingly larger datasets encompassing greater taxonomic diversity are becoming available to generate molecular timetrees by using sophisticated methods that model rate variation among lineages. However, the practical application of these methods is challenging because of the exorbitant calculation times required by current methods for contemporary data sizes, the difficulty in correctly modeling the rate heterogeneity in highly diverse taxonomic groups, and the lack of reliable clock calibrations and their uncertainty distributions for most groups of species. Here, we present a method that estimates relative times of divergences for all branching points (nodes) in very large phylogenetic trees without assuming a specific model for lineage rate variation or specifying any clock calibrations. The method (RelTime) performed better than existing methods when applied to very large computer simulated datasets where evolutionary rates were varied extensively among lineages by following autocorrelated and uncorrelated models. On average, RelTime completed calculations 1,000 times faster than the fastest Bayesian method, with even greater speed difference for larger number of sequences. This speed and accuracy will enable molecular dating analysis of very large datasets. Relative time estimates will be useful for determining the relative ordering and spacing of speciation events, identifying lineages with significantly slower or faster evolutionary rates, diagnosing the effect of selected calibrations on absolute divergence times, and estimating absolute times of divergence when highly reliable calibration points are available.
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              MEGA: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis software for microcomputers.

              A computer program package called MEGA has been developed for estimating evolutionary distances, reconstructing phylogenetic trees and computing basic statistical quantities from molecular data. It is written in C++ and is intended to be used on IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers. In this program, various methods for estimating evolutionary distances from nucleotide and amino acid sequence data, three different methods of phylogenetic inference (UPGMA, neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony) and two statistical tests of topological differences are included. For the maximum parsimony method, new algorithms of branch-and-bound and heuristic searches are implemented. In addition, MEGA computes statistical quantities such as nucleotide and amino acid frequencies, transition/transversion biases, codon frequencies (codon usage tables), and the number of variable sites in specified segments in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Advanced on-screen sequence data and phylogenetic-tree editors facilitate publication-quality outputs with a wide range of printers. Integrated and interactive designs, on-line context-sensitive helps, and a text-file editor make MEGA easy to use.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecular Biology and Evolution
                Mol Biol Evol
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0737-4038
                1537-1719
                June 21 2016
                July 2016
                July 2016
                March 22 2016
                : 33
                : 7
                : 1870-1874
                Article
                10.1093/molbev/msw054
                27004904
                61a58b9e-7b7f-4055-9f07-ea002cc81faf
                © 2016

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