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      Recipients of COVID-19 vaccines face challenges of SARS-CoV-2 variants


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          The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has been rampant since 2019, severely affecting global public health, and causing 5.75 million deaths worldwide. So far, many vaccines have been developed to prevent the infection of SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, the emergence of new variants may threat vaccine recipients as they might evade immunological surveillance that depends on the using of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody to neutralize the viral particles. Recent studies have found that recipients who received two doses of vaccination plus an additional booster shoot were able to quickly elevate neutralization response and immune response against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus and some initially appeared viral variants. In this review, we assessed the real-world effectiveness of different COVID-19 vaccines by population studies and neutralization assays and compared neutralization responses of booster vaccines in vitro. Finally, as the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine is expected to decline over time, continued vaccination should be considered to achieve a long-term immune protection against coronavirus.

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          Most cited references58

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          Structure, Function, and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein

          Summary The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S1/S2 subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.
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            Structural and Functional Basis of SARS-CoV-2 Entry by Using Human ACE2

            Summary The recent emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in China has caused significant public health concerns. Recently, ACE2 was reported as an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2-CTD) spike (S) protein in complex with human ACE2 (hACE2), which reveals a hACE2-binding mode similar overall to that observed for SARS-CoV. However, atomic details at the binding interface demonstrate that key residue substitutions in SARS-CoV-2-CTD slightly strengthen the interaction and lead to higher affinity for receptor binding than SARS-RBD. Additionally, a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) against SARS-CoV-S1/receptor-binding domain (RBD) were unable to interact with the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, indicating notable differences in antigenicity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. These findings shed light on the viral pathogenesis and provide important structural information regarding development of therapeutic countermeasures against the emerging virus.
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              Genome Composition and Divergence of the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Originating in China

              An in-depth annotation of the newly discovered coronavirus (2019-nCoV) genome has revealed differences between 2019-nCoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or SARS-like coronaviruses. A systematic comparison identified 380 amino acid substitutions between these coronaviruses, which may have caused functional and pathogenic divergence of 2019-nCoV.

                Author and article information

                Int J Biol Sci
                Int J Biol Sci
                International Journal of Biological Sciences
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                11 July 2022
                : 18
                : 12
                : 4642-4647
                [1 ]Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macao SAR, China
                [2 ]Ministry of Education-Frontiers Science Center for Precision Oncology, University of Macau, Taipa, Macao SAR, China
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: kluo@ 123456um.edu.mo

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                © The author(s)

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.


                Life sciences
                covid-19,sars-cov-2 virus,vaccines,viral variants,booster vaccination
                Life sciences
                covid-19, sars-cov-2 virus, vaccines, viral variants, booster vaccination


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