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      Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance

      Journal of Experimental Botany
      Oxford University Press (OUP)

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          Tansley Review No. 111

          Zinc deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies in plants and causes severe reductions in crop production. There are a number of physiological impairments in Zn-deficient cells causing inhibition of the growth, differentiation and development of plants. Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative damage to critical cell compounds resulting from attack by reactive O2 species (ROS) is the basis of disturbances in plant growth caused by Zn deficiency. Zinc interferes with membrane-bound NADPH oxidase producing ROS. In Zn-deficient plants the iron concentration increases, which potentiates the production of free radicals. The Zn nutritional status of plants influences photooxidative damage to chloroplasts, catalysed by ROS. Zinc-deficient leaves are highly light-sensitive, rapidly becoming chlorotic and necrotic when exposed to high light intensity. Zinc plays critical roles in the defence system of cells against ROS, and thus represents an excellent protective agent against the oxidation of several vital cell components such as membrane lipids and proteins, chlorophyll, SH-containing enzymes and DNA. The cysteine, histidine and glutamate or aspartate residues represent the most critical Zn- binding sites in enzymes, DNA-binding proteins (Zn-finger proteins) and membrane proteins. In addition, animal studies have shown that Zn is involved in inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death) which is preceded by DNA and membrane damage through reactions with ROS. contents Summary 185 I. introduction 186 II. effect of zinc on production of reactive oxygen species 186 III. membrane damage by reactive oxygen species 193 III. membrane damage by reactive oxygen species 193 V. involvement of zinc in plant stress tolerance 199 VI. conclusions 199 Acknowledgements 200 References 200.
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            Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plants

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              Metallothionein.

              Dean Hamer (1986)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Experimental Botany
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1460-2431
                0022-0957
                January 1 2002
                January 1 2002
                : 53
                : 366
                : 1-11
                Article
                10.1093/jexbot/53.366.1
                11741035
                67d8e5e6-bbcb-4703-bf5b-4602398a4ec4
                © 2002
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