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      The phylogeny of Galerucinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the performance of mitochondrial genomes in phylogenetic inference compared to nuclear rRNA genes

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          SequenceMatrix: concatenation software for the fast assembly of multi-gene datasets with character set and codon information

          We present SequenceMatrix, software that is designed to facilitate the assembly and analysis of multi-gene datasets. Genes are concatenated by dragging and dropping FASTA, NEXUS, or TNT files with aligned sequences into the program window. A multi-gene dataset is concatenated and displayed in a spreadsheet; each sequence is represented by a cell that provides information on sequence length, number of indels, the number of ambiguous bases ("Ns"), and the availability of codon information. Alternatively, GenBank numbers for the sequences can be displayed and exported. Matrices with hundreds of genes and taxa can be concatenated within minutes and exported in TNT, NEXUS, or PHYLIP formats, preserving both character set and codon information for TNT and NEXUS files. SequenceMatrix also creates taxon sets listing taxa with a minimum number of characters or gene fragments, which helps assess preliminary datasets. Entire taxa, whole gene fragments, or individual sequences for a particular gene and species can be excluded from export. Data matrices can be re-split into their component genes and the gene fragments can be exported as individual gene files. SequenceMatrix also includes two tools that help to identify sequences that may have been compromised through laboratory contamination or data management error. One tool lists identical or near-identical sequences within genes, while the other compares the pairwise distance pattern of one gene against the pattern for all remaining genes combined. SequenceMatrix is Java-based and compatible with the Microsoft Windows, Apple MacOS X and Linux operating systems. The software is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/sequencematrix/. © The Willi Hennig Society 2010.
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            Is Open Access

            Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

            Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae).
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              Evidence for multiple reversals of asymmetric mutational constraints during the evolution of the mitochondrial genome of metazoa, and consequences for phylogenetic inferences.

              Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences are comonly used for inferring phylogenetic relationships. However, the strand-specific bias in the nucleotide composition of the mtDNA, which is thought to reflect assymetric mutational constraints, combined with the important compositional heterogeneity among taxa, are known to be highly problematic for phylogenetic analyses. Here, nucleotide composition was compared across 49 species of Metazoa (34 arthropods, 2 annelids, 2 molluscs, and 11 deuterosomes), and analyzed for a mtDNA fragment including six protein-coding genes, i.e., atp6, atp8, cox1, cox2, cox3, and nad2. The analyses show that most metazoan species present a clear strand assymetry, where one strand is biased in favor of A and C, whereas the other strand has reverse bias, i.e. in favor of T and G. the origin of this strand bias can be related to assymetric mutational constraints involving deaminations of A and C nucleotides during the replication and/or transcription processes. The analyses reveal that six unrelated genera are characterized by a reversal of the usual strand bias, i.e., Argiope (Araneae), Euscorpius (Scorpiones), Tigrioupus (Maxillopoda), Branchiostoma (Cephalochordata) Florometra (Echinodermata), and Katharina (Mollusca). It is proposed that assymetric mutational constraints have been independantly reversed in these six genera, through an inversion of the control region, i.e., the region that contains most regulatory elements for replication and transcription of the mtDNA. We show that reversals of assymetric mutational constraints have dramatic consequences on the phylogenetic analyses, as taxa characterized by reverse strand bias tend to group together due to long-branch attraction artifacts. We propose a new method for limiting this specific problem in tree reconstruction under the Bayesian approach. We apply our method to deal with the question of phylogenetic relationships of the major lineages of Arthropoda, This new approach provides a better congruence with nuclear analyses based on mtDNA sequences, our data suggest that Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda, Pancrustacea, and Paradoxopoda are monophyletic.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cladistics
                Cladistics
                Wiley
                07483007
                April 2018
                April 2018
                May 05 2017
                : 34
                : 2
                : 113-130
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution; Institute of Zoology; Chinese Academy of Sciences; Beijing 100101 China
                [2 ]Department of Life Sciences; Natural History Museum; London SW7 5BD UK
                [3 ]Department of Life Sciences; Silwood Park Campus; Imperial College London; Ascot SL5 7PY UK
                [4 ]Senckenberg German Entomological Institute; Müncheberg 15374 Germany
                [5 ]College of Life Sciences; Shaanxi Normal University; Xi'an 710062 China
                Article
                10.1111/cla.12196
                34645082
                680e503b-f0ca-49fa-ae5f-4350d554a2d8
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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