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      The Mitochondrial-Targeted Compound SS-31 Re-Energizes Ischemic Mitochondria by Interacting with Cardiolipin

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          Abstract

          Ischemia causes AKI as a result of ATP depletion, and rapid recovery of ATP on reperfusion is important to minimize tissue damage. ATP recovery is often delayed, however, because ischemia destroys the mitochondrial cristae membranes required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The mitochondria-targeted compound SS-31 accelerates ATP recovery after ischemia and reduces AKI, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we used a polarity-sensitive fluorescent analog of SS-31 to demonstrate that SS-31 binds with high affinity to cardiolipin, an anionic phospholipid expressed on the inner mitochondrial membrane that is required for cristae formation. In addition, the SS-31/cardiolipin complex inhibited cytochrome c peroxidase activity, which catalyzes cardiolipin peroxidation and results in mitochondrial damage during ischemia, by protecting its heme iron. Pretreatment of rats with SS-31 protected cristae membranes during renal ischemia and prevented mitochondrial swelling. Prompt recovery of ATP on reperfusion led to rapid repair of ATP-dependent processes, such as restoration of the actin cytoskeleton and cell polarity. Rapid recovery of ATP also inhibited apoptosis, protected tubular barrier function, and mitigated renal dysfunction. In conclusion, SS-31, which is currently in clinical trials for ischemia-reperfusion injury, protects mitochondrial cristae by interacting with cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane.

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          The distribution and function of phosphatidylserine in cellular membranes.

          Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the most abundant negatively charged phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes. PS directs the binding of proteins that bear C2 or gamma-carboxyglutamic domains and contributes to the electrostatic association of polycationic ligands with cellular membranes. Rather than being evenly distributed, PS is found preferentially in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and in endocytic membranes. The loss of PS asymmetry is an early indicator of apoptosis and serves as a signal to initiate blood clotting. This review discusses the determinants and functional implications of the subcellular distribution and membrane topology of PS.
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            Pathophysiology of ischemic acute kidney injury.

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) as a consequence of ischemia is a common clinical event leading to unacceptably high morbidity and mortality, development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and transition from pre-existing CKD to end-stage renal disease. Data indicate a close interaction between the many cell types involved in the pathophysiology of ischemic AKI, which has critical implications for the treatment of this condition. Inflammation seems to be the common factor that links the various cell types involved in this process. In this Review, we describe the interactions between these cells and their response to injury following ischemia. We relate these events to patients who are at high risk of AKI, and highlight the characteristics that might predispose these patients to injury. We also discuss how therapy targeting specific cell types can minimize the initial and subsequent injury following ischemia, thereby limiting the extent of acute changes and, hopefully, long-term structural and functional alterations to the kidney.
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              Cell-permeable peptide antioxidants targeted to inner mitochondrial membrane inhibit mitochondrial swelling, oxidative cell death, and reperfusion injury.

              Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in promoting mitochondrial cytochrome c release and induction of apoptosis. ROS induce dissociation of cytochrome c from cardiolipin on the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM), and cytochrome c may then be released via mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent or MPT-independent mechanisms. We have developed peptide antioxidants that target the IMM, and we used them to investigate the role of ROS and MPT in cell death caused by t-butylhydroperoxide (tBHP) and 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP). The structural motif of these peptides centers on alternating aromatic and basic amino acid residues, with dimethyltyrosine providing scavenging properties. These peptide antioxidants are cell-permeable and concentrate 1000-fold in the IMM. They potently reduced intracellular ROS and cell death caused by tBHP in neuronal N(2)A cells (EC(50) in nm range). They also decreased mitochondrial ROS production, inhibited MPT and swelling, and prevented cytochrome c release induced by Ca(2+) in isolated mitochondria. In addition, they inhibited 3NP-induced MPT in isolated mitochondria and prevented mitochondrial depolarization in cells treated with 3NP. ROS and MPT have been implicated in myocardial stunning associated with reperfusion in ischemic hearts, and these peptide antioxidants potently improved contractile force in an ex vivo heart model. It is noteworthy that peptide analogs without dimethyltyrosine did not inhibit mitochondrial ROS generation or swelling and failed to prevent myocardial stunning. These results clearly demonstrate that overproduction of ROS underlies the cellular toxicity of tBHP and 3NP, and ROS mediate cytochrome c release via MPT. These IMM-targeted antioxidants may be very beneficial in the treatment of aging and diseases associated with oxidative stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
                JASN
                American Society of Nephrology (ASN)
                1046-6673
                1533-3450
                July 31 2013
                August 2013
                August 2013
                July 11 2013
                : 24
                : 8
                : 1250-1261
                Article
                10.1681/ASN.2012121216
                3736700
                23813215
                6965878b-45d4-4466-9db4-aa3fc7c21b59
                © 2013
                History

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