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      Regional Citrate Anticoagulation during Hemodialysis

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          Background: Regional citrate anticoagulation during hemodialysis is promising, but its clinical implementation is routinely cumbersome because a continuous adjustment of calcium infusion at the dialyzer outlet is needed. Duocart biofiltration (DCB) is a new hemodialysis method using a calcium and magnesium-free dialysate containing only sodium chloride and bicarbonate combined with the infusion into the venous line of a solution containing the ionic complement (K, Ca, Mg) and glucose. Since the dialysate is calcium- and magnesium-free and infusion rate of the solution containing calcium is automatically determined by the dialysis delivery system according to the on-line measured value of ionic dialysance, DCB seems a technique especially suitable for citrate anticoagulation procedure. Methods: Thirty DCB sessions were performed in 10 patients with increased risk of bleeding. A commercially available mixture of trisodium citrate, citric acid and glucose was infused into the arterial line at a rate equal to 3% of dialyzer blood flow. The ionic complement (K: 48 m M, Ca: 42 m M, Mg: 14 m M, glucose: 110 m M) was infused at a rate equal to 1/24 ionic dialysance value automatically determined each 15 min by the dialysis monitor. DCB sessions were compared to 21 conventional bicarbonate hemodialysis (BHD) sessions with low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulation. Results: Whole blood activated clotting time (WBACT) measured in the venous line (before infusion of ionic complement) was 200% of the WBACT value in the arterial line. Clotting and citrate-related adverse events were not observed. Postdialysis compression time of the arteriovenous access is significantly (p < 0.001) shorter after DCB sessions (3.9 ± 1.1 min) compared with BHD sessions (8.7 ± 4.6 min). Conclusion: Citrate anticoagulation during Duocart biofiltration is effective, safe and suitable for routine use because calcium infusion rate is automatically adjusted without the need of monitoring degree of anticoagulation and level of ionized calcium.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Effect of anticoagulation on blood membrane interactions during hemodialysis.

          Adequate anticoagulation is a precondition to prevent extracorporeal blood clotting and to improve biocompatibility during hemodialysis. In this study, we performed a morphologic analysis by using scanning electron microscopy to compare three modes of anticoagulation-conventional unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; dalteparin sodium), or sodium citrate during hemodialysis-on membrane-associated coagulation activation. Fifteen patients on regular hemodialysis therapy were investigated. Five patients received UFH, five patients LMWH, and five patients sodium citrate as an anticoagulant during a standardized hemodialysis protocol using a single-use polysulfone capillary dialyzer. Membrane-associated clotting was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. A dialyzer clotting score was used for quantitative description of coagulation activation on membrane segments. Using UFH as an anticoagulant revealed the most pronounced cell adhesion and thrombus formation and the highest dialyzer clotting score (11.5 +/- 1.3 of a maximal 20 points). LMWH had a lower dialyzer clotting score than UFH (10.4 +/- 1.2 of 20 points). During the use of sodium citrate, a negligible thrombus formation and the lowest dialyzer clotting score (1.6 +/- 0.6 of 20 points, P < 0.05) were observed. The results of this investigation indicate that using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis induces a lower activation of coagulation than both conventional and fractionated heparin, which might contribute to an improvement of biocompatibility of hemodialysis extracorporeal circulation.
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            Regional citrate anticoagulation for hemodialysis in the patient at high risk for bleeding.

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              Comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin sodium) and standard unfractionated heparin for haemodialysis anticoagulation.

              Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has been suggested as providing safe, efficient, convenient and possibly more cost-effective anticoagulation for haemodialysis (HD) than unfractionated heparin, with fewer side-effects and possible benefits on uraemic dyslipidaemia. In this prospective, randomized, cross-over study we compared the safety, clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of Clexane (enoxaparin sodium; Rhône-Poulenc Rorer) with unfractionated heparin in 36 chronic HD patients. They were randomly assigned to either Clexane (1 mg/kg body weight, equivalent to 100 IU) or standard heparin, and followed prospectively for 12 weeks (36 dialyses) before crossing over to the alternate therapy for a further 12 weeks. Heparin anticoagulation was monitored using activated coagulation times. Dialysis with Clexane resulted in less frequent minor fibrin/clot formation in the dialyser and lines than with heparin (P<0.001), but was accompanied by increased frequency of minor haemorrhage between dialyses (P<0.001). Clexane dose reduction (to a mean of 0.69 mg/kg) eliminated excess minor haemorrhage without increasing clotting frequencies. Mean vascular compression times were similar in both groups. Over 24 weeks, no changes in standard serum lipid profiles were observed. This study suggests that a single-dose protocol of Clexane is an effective and very convenient alternative to sodium heparin, but currently direct costs are about 16% more. We recommend an initial dose of 0.70 mg/kg.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                December 2005
                19 December 2005
                : 23
                : 6
                : 473-480
                Departments of aNephrology and bBiophysics, Hôpital de la Pitié, Paris, and cHospal R&D Int., Lyon, France
                89652 Blood Purif 2005;23:473–480
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 33, Pages: 8
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