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      Carcinoid Heart Disease: Pathophysiology, Pathology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management

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          Abstract

          Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a rare and potentially lethal manifestation of an advanced carcinoid (neuroendocrine) tumor. The pathophysiology of CHD is related to vasoactive substances secreted by the tumor, of which serotonin is most prominent in the pathophysiology of CHD. Serotonin stimulates fibroblast growth and fibrogenesis, which can lead to cardiac valvular fibrosis. CHD primarily affects right heart valves, causing tricuspid and pulmonic regurgitation and less frequently stenosis of these valves. Left heart valves are usually spared because vasoactive substances such as serotonin are enzymatically inactivated in the lung vasculature. The pathology of CHD is characterized by plaque-like deposition of fibrous tissue on valvular cusps, leaflets, papillary muscles, chordae, and ventricular walls. Symptomatic CHD usually presents between 50 and 70 years of age, initially as dyspnea and fatigue. Echocardiography is the mainstay of imaging and demonstrates thickened right heart valves with limited mobility and regurgitation. Treatment focuses on control of the underlying carcinoid syndrome, targeting subsequent valvular heart disease and managing consequent heart failure. Surgical valve replacement and catheter-directed valve procedures may be effective for selected patients with CHD.

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          Most cited references 64

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          2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: Executive Summary

          Circulation, 128(16), 1810-1852
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            Carcinoid tumors. An analysis of 2,837 cases.

            Two thousand eight hundred thirty-seven cases of carcinoid tumor from files at the National Cancer Institute were analyzed statistically. Tumors were found in the lung, ovary, and biliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Most were in the appendix, rectum, and ileum. Age-adjusted incidence rates were higher for black males, except for lung carcinoids. Carcinoids showed several differences from other kinds of tumor, including a low age for appendiceal and lung cases and low male/female and black/white ratios in the lung. Percentages of concurrent neoplasms and multiple carcinoids were low compared to other series. Five-year relative survival rates ranged from 99% (appendix) to 33% (sigmoid colon). Survival for colon cases was not so low as expected on the basis of the high rate of metastasis. Some appendiceal carcinoids were metastatic and may have killed 1 patient. Findings are compared with other studies.
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              Metastatic carcinoid tumors: a clinical review.

              Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors derived from enterochromaffin cells, which are widely distributed in the body. They can originate from any location in the body, but they are traditionally described as originating from the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. Although the overall incidence of carcinoid tumors appears to have increased in the past decades, the prognosis for patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors has improved during the last decade. Due to longer survival times, complications, such as carcinoid heart disease, and new metastatic patterns, like skin and bone metastases, may become more important features of carcinoid disease. Therapy focused on these complications should be part of the management. Combining new diagnostic and treatment modalities in metastatic carcinoid patients may result in better quality of life and longer survival times. The increasing number of therapeutic options and diagnostic procedures requires a multidisciplinary approach, with decisions made in multidisciplinary meetings focused on "tailor-made" therapy based on patients' specific conditions. Because carcinoid tumors are uncommon, effort should be made to treat these patients in specialized centers and for these centers to join together in multicenter studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                January 2021
                16 October 2020
                : 146
                : 1
                : 65-73
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California (Davis) Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA
                Author notes
                *Ezra A. Amsterdam, University of California (Davis) Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Ellison Building, Suite 2820, Sacramento, CA 95817 (USA), eaamsterdam@ucdavis.edu
                Article
                507847 Cardiology 2021;146:65–73
                10.1159/000507847
                33070143
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Valvular Heart Disease: Review Article

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