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      Hemoadsorption removes tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10, reduces nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding, and improves short-term survival in lethal endotoxemia.

      Critical Care Medicine

      Analysis of Variance, Animals, Endotoxemia, therapy, Hemofiltration, Interleukin-10, blood, Interleukin-6, Male, NF-kappa B, Random Allocation, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Sepsis, Statistics, Nonparametric, Survival Analysis, metabolism, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

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          Abstract

          Previous studies have shown that inflammatory mediators can be removed from the circulation with hemofiltration and that adsorption plays an important role. Because adsorptive capacity of hollow-fiber dialyzers is limited, we sought to determine whether hemoadsorption using high surface area beads would result in greater mediator removal and improved survival in experimental sepsis. Randomized controlled laboratory experiment. University laboratory. Sixty-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats. We conducted two ex vivo and two in vivo experiments. For in vivo experiments, we administered Escherichia coli endotoxin (20 mg/kg) by intravenous infusion and then randomized each animal to receive either hemoadsorption or a sham circuit for 4 hrs. Hemoadsorption was performed for 4 hrs using an arterial-venous circuit and a CytoSorb cartridge containing 10 g of polystyrene divinyl benzene copolymer beads with a biocompatible polyvinylpyrrolidone coating. Survival time was measured to a maximum of 12 hrs. In a separate set of experiments, we studied 12 animals using the same protocol except that we killed all animals at 4 hrs and removed standardized sections of liver for analysis of nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding. Mean survival time among hemoadsorption-treated animals was 629+/-114 vs. 518+/-120 mins for sham-treated animals (p <.01). Overall survival (defined at 12 hrs) was also significantly better in the hemoadsorption group, seven of 20 vs. one of 20 (p <.05). Plasma interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations and liver nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding were significantly reduced by hemoadsorption. Ex vivo experiments showed no endotoxin adsorption but strengthened our in vivo observations by showing rapid adsorption of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10. Hemoadsorption was associated with reduced inflammation and improved survival in this murine model of septic shock.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Detection of circulating tumor necrosis factor after endotoxin administration.

          Cytokines, products of stimulated macrophages, are thought to mediate many host responses to bacterial infection, but increased circulating cytokine concentrations have not been detected consistently in infected patients. We measured plasma concentrations of circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (cachectin), interleukin-1 beta, and gamma interferon, together with physiologic and hormonal responses, in 13 healthy men after intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin (4 ng per kilogram of body weight) and during a control period of saline administration. Eight additional subjects received ibuprofen before receiving endotoxin or saline. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor were generally less than 35 pg per milliliter throughout the control period, but increased 90 to 180 minutes after endotoxin administration to mean peak concentrations of 240 +/- 70 pg per milliliter, as compared with 35 +/- 5 pg per milliliter after saline administration. Host responses were temporally associated with the increase in circulating tumor necrosis factor at 90 minutes, and the extent of symptoms, changes in white-cell count, and production of ACTH were temporally related to the peak concentration of tumor necrosis factor. Ibuprofen pretreatment did not prevent the rise in circulating tumor necrosis factor (mean peak plasma level, 170 +/- 70 pg per milliliter) but greatly attenuated the symptoms and other responses after endotoxin administration. Concentrations of circulating interleukin-1 beta and gamma interferon did not change after endotoxin administration. We conclude that the response to endotoxin is associated with a brief pulse of circulating tumor necrosis factor and that the resultant responses are effected through the cyclooxygenase pathway.
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            Prospective evaluation of short-term, high-volume isovolemic hemofiltration on the hemodynamic course and outcome in patients with intractable circulatory failure resulting from septic shock.

            To evaluate the effects of short-term, high-volume hemofiltration (STHVH) on hemodynamic and metabolic status and 28-day survival in patients with refractory septic shock. Prospective, interventional. Intensive care unit (ICU), tertiary institution. Twenty patients with intractable cardiocirculatory failure complicating septic shock, who had failed to respond to conventional therapy. STHVH, followed by conventional continuous venovenous hemofiltration. STHVH consisted of a 4-hr period during which 35 L of ultrafiltrate is removed and neutral fluid balance is maintained. Subsequent conventional continuous venovenous hemofiltration continued for at least 4 days. Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, mixed venous oxygen saturation, arterial pH, and lactate were measured serially. Fluid and inotropic support were managed by protocol. Therapeutic endpoints were as follows during STHVH: a) by 2 hrs, a > or =50% increase in cardiac index; b) by 2 hrs, a > or =25% increase in mixed venous saturation; c) by 4 hrs, an increase in arterial pH to >7.3; d) by 4 hrs, a > or =50% reduction in epinephrine dose. Patients who attained all four goals (11 of 20) were considered hemodynamic "responders"; patients who did not (9 of 20) were considered hemodynamic "nonresponders." There were no differences in baseline hemodynamic, metabolic, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation and Simplified Acute Physiology Scores between responders and nonresponders. Survival to 28 days was better among responders (9 of 11 patients) than among nonresponders (0 of 9). Factors associated with survival were hemodynamic-metabolic response status, time interval from ICU admission to initiation of STHVH, and body weight. These data suggest that STHVH may be of major therapeutic value in the treatment of intractable cardiocirculatory failure complicating septic shock. Early initiation of therapy and adequate dose may improve hemodynamic and metabolic responses and 28-day survival.
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              A pilot study of coupled plasma filtration with adsorption in septic shock.

              To test the hypothesis that nonselective plasma adsorption by a hydrophobic resin (coupled plasmafiltration and adsorption) could improve hemodynamics and restore leukocyte responsiveness in patients with septic shock. Prospective, pilot, crossover clinical trial. General intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Ten patients with hyperdynamic septic shock. Patients were randomly allocated to 10 hrs of either coupled plasma filtration adsorption plus hemodialysis (treatment A) or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (treatment B) in random order. We measured the change in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine requirements, and leukocyte tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production (both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated) after 10 hrs of each treatment. We also tested TNF-alpha production from normal human adherent monocytes incubated with patients' plasma obtained before and after the resin, both with or without incubation with an anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibody. Mean arterial pressure increased after 10 hr by 11.8 mm Hg with treatment A and by 5.5 mm Hg with treatment B (p =.001). There was an average decrease of norepinephrine requirement of 0.08 microg/kg/min with treatment A and 0.0049 microg/kg/min with treatment B (p =.003). All patients but one survived. Spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production from patients' whole blood increased over time with treatment A. This increase was more marked in blood drawn after the device (plasmafiltrate-sorbent plus hemodialyzer) (p =.009). Preresin plasma suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-alpha by 1 x 10(6)cultured adherent monocytes from healthy donors. This suppressive effect was significantly reduced after passage of plasma through the resin (p =.019) and after incubation with anti-interleukin-10 monoclonal antibodies (p =.028). In patients with septic shock, coupled plasmafiltration-adsorption combined with hemodialysis was associated with improved hemodynamics compared with continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. This result might be related to its ability to restore leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest a potential role for blood purification in the treatment of septic shock.
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