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      Current Experimental Studies of Gene Therapy in Parkinson's Disease

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          Abstract

          Parkinson's disease (PD) was characterized by late-onset, progressive dopamine neuron loss and movement disorders. The progresses of PD affected the neural function and integrity. To date, most researches had largely addressed the dopamine replacement therapies, but the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia hampered the use of the drug. And the mechanism of PD is so complicated that it's hard to solve the problem by just add drugs. Researchers began to focus on the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's disease, searching for new method that may affect the neurodegeneration processes in it. In this paper, we reviewed current delivery methods used in gene therapies for PD, we also summarized the primary target of the gene therapy in the treatment of PD, such like neurotrophic factor (for regeneration), the synthesis of neurotransmitter (for prolong the duration of L-dopa), and the potential proteins that might be a target to modulate via gene therapy. Finally, we discussed RNA interference therapies used in Parkinson's disease, it might act as a new class of drug. We mainly focus on the efficiency and tooling features of different gene therapies in the treatment of PD.

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          The RNAi revolution.

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            Continuous dopamine-receptor treatment of Parkinson's disease: scientific rationale and clinical implications.

            Levodopa-induced motor complications are a common source of disability for patients with Parkinson's disease. Evidence suggests that motor complications are associated with non-physiological, pulsatile stimulation of dopamine receptors. In healthy brains, dopamine neurons fire continuously, striatal dopamine concentrations are relatively constant, and there is continuous activation of dopamine receptors. In the dopamine-depleted state, standard levodopa therapy does not normalise the basal ganglia. Rather, levodopa or other short-acting dopaminergic drugs induce molecular changes and altered neuronal firing patterns in basal ganglia neurons leading to motor complications. The concept of continuous dopaminergic stimulation proposes that continuous delivery of a dopaminergic drug will prevent pulsatile stimulation and avoid motor complications. In monkeys treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and patients with Parkinson's disease, long-acting or continuous infusion of a dopaminergic drug reduces the risk of motor complications. The current challenge is to develop a long-acting oral formulation of levodopa that provides clinical benefits but avoids motor complications.
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              Current and experimental treatments of Parkinson disease: A guide for neuroscientists.

              Over a period of more than 50 years, the symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been optimized using pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. The arsenal of pharmacotherapies includes L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine. In the later course of the disease, motor complications occur, at which stage different oral formulations of L-Dopa or dopamine agonists with long half-life, a transdermal application or parenteral pumps for continuous drug supply can be subscribed. Alternatively, the patient is offered deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi). For a more efficacious treatment of motor complications, new formulations of L-Dopa, dopamine agonists, and amantadine as well as new MAO-B and COMT inhibitors are currently tested in clinical trials, and some of them already yielding positive results in phase 3 trials. In addition, non-dopaminergic agents have been tested in the early clinical phase for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, including adenosine A2A antagonists (istradefylline, preladenant, and tozadenant) and modulators of the metabolic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 - mavoglurant) and serotonin (eltoprazine) receptors. Recent clinical trials testing coenzyme Q10, the dopamine agonist pramipexole, creatine monohydrate, pioglitazone, or AAV-mediated gene therapy aimed at increasing expression of neurturin, did not prove efficacious. Treatment with nicotine, caffeine, inosine (a precursor of urate), and isradipine (a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker), as well as active and passive immunization against α-synuclein and inhibitors or modulators of α-synuclein-aggregation are currently studied in clinical trials. However, to date, no disease-modifying treatment is available. We here review the current status of treatment options for motor and non-motor symptoms, and discuss current investigative strategies for disease modification. This review provides basic insights, mainly addressing basic scientists and non-specialists. It stresses the need to intensify therapeutic PD research and points out reasons why the translation of basic research to disease-modifying therapies has been unsuccessful so far. The symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been constantly optimized using pharmacotherapy (L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine), deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. For a more efficacious treatment of motor complications, new formulations of L-Dopa, dopamine agonists, and amantadine as well as new MAO-B and COMT inhibitors are currently tested in clinical trials. Non-dopaminergic agents have been tested in the early clinical phase for the treatment of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. Recent clinical trials testing coenzyme Q10, the dopamine agonist pramipexole, creatine monohydrate, pioglitazone, or AAV-mediated gene therapy aimed at increasing expression of neurturin, did not prove efficacious. Treatment with nicotine, caffeine, and isradipine - a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker - as well as active and passive immunization against α-synuclein and inhibitors of α-synuclein-aggregation are currently studied in clinical trials. However, to date, no disease-modifying treatment is available for PD. We here review the current status of treatment options and investigative strategies for both motor and non-motor symptoms. This review stresses the need to intensify therapeutic PD research and points out reasons why the translation of basic research to disease-modifying therapies has been unsuccessful so far. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front. Aging Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-4365
                03 May 2017
                2017
                : 9
                Affiliations
                1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to the Medical School of Shanghai JiaoTong University Shanghai, China
                2Department of Neurology, The first Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou Medical University Wenzhou, China
                3School of Pharmacy, Shanghai JiaoTong University Shanghai, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Oliver von Bohlen und Halbach, Universitätsmedizin Greifswald, Germany

                Reviewed by: Rongqiao He, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China; Lingyong Li, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA

                *Correspondence: Zhen-Guo Liu zhenguoliu2004@ 123456aliyun.com
                Article
                10.3389/fnagi.2017.00126
                5413509
                Copyright © 2017 Lin, Xie, Zhang, Yuan and Liu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 110, Pages: 9, Words: 7905
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Mini Review

                Neurosciences

                parkinson's disease, animal models, gene therapy, rna interference, neurodegeneration

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