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      Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis Caused by Alcaligenes xylosoxidans

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          Abstract

          Despite significant progress to decrease its incidence, peritonitis remains the main source of morbidity and treatment failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The majority of cases of peritonitis result from infection with aerobic gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus), or gram-negative organisms. Less common organisms that are also reported include anaerobic bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria, which collectively account for less than 10% of isolates cultured. We report a case of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis, and review the literature on peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes species. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans is a nonfermenting gram-negative rod and opportunistic pathogen that is motile with peritrichous flagella. The clinical features and microbiological data of our case, as well as the other previously reported cases of peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes species show no particular pattern of peritoneal dialysate cell count. However, the rate of recurrence of peritonitis is characteristically high. The cause of such a high rate of recurrence of peritonitis is probably a reflection of the predilection of Alcaligenes species to cause infection in the ‘sicker’ patients, and the almost universal resistance of this species to most antimicrobial agents. We, therefore, recommend that catheter removal be undertaken as early as the identification of the organism is made. Whether patients should be allowed to return to CAPD after recovery is a more difficult question. We suggest that a reevaluation of the patient’s overall status be undertaken, including personal hygiene, exchange technique, presence of diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and/or other factors that may render the patient more prone to infection with opportunistic pathogens.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          AJN
          Am J Nephrol
          10.1159/issn.0250-8095
          American Journal of Nephrology
          S. Karger AG
          0250-8095
          1421-9670
          1998
          October 1998
          10 September 1998
          : 18
          : 5
          : 452-455
          Affiliations
          a Division of Nephrology, and b Department of Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
          Article
          13370 Am J Nephrol 1998;18:452–455
          10.1159/000013370
          9730575
          © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Tables: 2, References: 32, Pages: 4
          Product
          Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/13370
          Categories
          Case Report

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