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      Biocatalysis as a Green Approach for Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles—Batch and Microflow Process Comparison

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      Catalysts
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          There is a growing need for production of iron particles due to their possible use in numerous systems (e.g., electrical, magnetic, catalytic, biological and others). Although severe reaction conditions and heavy solvents are frequently used in production of nanoparticles, green synthesis has arisen as an eco-friendly method that uses biological catalysts. Various precursors are combined with biological material (such as enzymes, herbal extracts, biomass, bacteria or yeasts) that contain chemicals from the main or secondary metabolism that can function as catalysts for production of nanoparticles. In this work, batch (“one-pot”) biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles is reviewed, as well as the possibilities of using microfluidic systems for continuous biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles, which could overcome the limitations of batch synthesis.

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          Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts.

          Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Synthesis mediated by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The reducing agents involved include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles have been the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of plant species have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here we review the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. Methods of particle characterization are reviewed and potential applications of the particles in medicine are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods

            Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis. The aim of this review article is, therefore, to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries.
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              Synthesis, properties, and applications of iron nanoparticles.

              Dale Huber (2005)
              Iron, the most ubiquitous of the transition metals and the fourth most plentiful element in the Earth's crust, is the structural backbone of our modern infrastructure. It is therefore ironic that as a nanoparticle, iron has been somewhat neglected in favor of its own oxides, as well as other metals such as cobalt, nickel, gold, and platinum. This is unfortunate, but understandable. Iron's reactivity is important in macroscopic applications (particularly rusting), but is a dominant concern at the nanoscale. Finely divided iron has long been known to be pyrophoric, which is a major reason that iron nanoparticles have not been more fully studied to date. This extreme reactivity has traditionally made iron nanoparticles difficult to study and inconvenient for practical applications. Iron however has a great deal to offer at the nanoscale, including very potent magnetic and catalytic properties. Recent work has begun to take advantage of iron's potential, and work in this field appears to be blossoming.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                CATACJ
                Catalysts
                Catalysts
                MDPI AG
                2073-4344
                January 2023
                January 04 2023
                : 13
                : 1
                : 112
                Article
                10.3390/catal13010112
                742574e3-be8d-4d16-9451-fbedb7bb7f01
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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