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      Nephrotic Proteinuria as a Result of Essential Hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background: The presence of nephrotic-range proteinuria in a nondiabetic hypertensive patient is generally indicative of an underlying glomerular disease. A few published reports have noted nephrotic proteinuria in some patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. The frequency of this association is unknown. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed renal biopsy reports on all cases of nephrotic syndrome over an 8-year period (1993–2000). We excluded all cases of diabetes mellitus, lupus, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, and chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Biopsy specimens showing glomerular eosinophilic hyalinosis lesions, positive immunofluorescence staining, or dense deposits on electron microscopy were also excluded. Thirteen of the remaining 237 (5.5%) biopsy specimens satisfied the standard histological criteria for hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Results: All patients were African-Americans with a mean age of 47.5 ± 13 years and an average mean arterial blood pressure of 122 ± 19 mm Hg. The mean values for urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine, albumin, and cholesterol were 8.9 g/day, 3.3 mg/dl, 3.1 g/dl, and 245 mg/dl, respectively. Optimal blood pressure control required at least three antihypertensive agents. Progression to end-stage renal disease occurred over a mean duration of 8.3 ± 6.5 months. Multivariate regression showed a strong but nonsignificant association between the level of proteinuria at the time of biopsy, duration of hypertension, and number of blood pressure medications (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.56, p = 0.38). Conclusions: Nephrotic syndrome may be more common in poorly controlled essential hypertension than previously realized. In African-American patients, the differential diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome should include hypertensive nephrosclerosis, but abrogation of renal biopsy is not implied.

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          From The Lancet

            (1992)
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            KBR
            Kidney Blood Press Res
            10.1159/issn.1420-4096
            Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
            S. Karger AG
            1420-4096
            1423-0143
            2002
            2002
            08 November 2002
            : 25
            : 4
            : 250-254
            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine, and Departments of Pathology, bEmory University School of Medicine and cGrady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Ga., USA
            Article
            66345 Kidney Blood Press Res 2002;25:250–254
            10.1159/000066345
            12424428
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 5
            Product
            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/66345
            Categories
            Original Paper

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