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      Ambient Air Pollution and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II


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          The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified both outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) for lung cancer. There may be associations with cancer at other sites; however, the epidemiological evidence is limited.


          The aim of this study was to clarify whether ambient air pollution is associated with specific types of cancer other than lung cancer by examining associations of ambient air pollution with nonlung cancer death in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II).


          Analysis included 623,048 CPS-II participants who were followed for 22 y (1982–2004). Modeled estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µ m ( PM 2.5 ) (1999–2004), nitrogen dioxide ( NO 2 ) (2006), and ozone ( O 3 ) (2002–2004) concentrations were linked to the participant residence at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations per each fifth percentile–mean increment with cancer mortality at 29 anatomic sites, adjusted for individual and ecological covariates.


          We observed 43,320 nonlung cancer deaths. PM 2.5 was significantly positively associated with death from cancers of the kidney {adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per 4.4 μ g / m 3 = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.27]} and bladder [ HR = 1.13 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.23)]. NO 2 was positively associated with colorectal cancer mortality [HR per 6.5 ppb = 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10). The results were similar in two-pollutant models including PM 2.5 and NO 2 and in three-pollutant models with O 3 . We observed no statistically significant positive associations with death from other types of cancer based on results from adjusted models.


          The results from this large prospective study suggest that ambient air pollution was not associated with death from most nonlung cancers, but associations with kidney, bladder, and colorectal cancer death warrant further investigation. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1249

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          Most cited references39

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          Long-Term Ozone Exposure and Mortality in a Large Prospective Study.

          Tropospheric ozone (O3) is potentially associated with cardiovascular disease risk and premature death. Results from long-term epidemiological studies on O3 are scarce and inconclusive.
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            Is Open Access

            Lung Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Associated with Ambient Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoke: Shape of the Exposure–Response Relationships

            Background: Lung cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risks increase with smoking, secondhand smoke (SHS), and exposure to fine particulate matter 40 among long-term heavy smokers. Excess risks for CVD mortality increased steeply at low exposure levels and leveled off at higher exposures, reaching RRs of approximately 2–3 for cigarette smoking. Conclusions: The exposure–response relationship associated with PM2.5 is qualitatively different for lung cancer versus cardiovascular mortality. At low exposure levels, cardiovascular deaths are projected to account for most of the burden of disease, whereas at high levels of PM2.5, lung cancer becomes proportionately more important.
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              Relationships between fine particulate air pollution, cardiometabolic disorders, and cardiovascular mortality.

              Growing evidence suggests that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution contributes to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. There is uncertainty about who are most susceptible. Individuals with underlying cardiometabolic disorders, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity, may be at greater risk. PM2.5 pollution may also contribute to cardiometabolic disorders, augmenting CVD risk.

                Author and article information

                Environ Health Perspect
                Environ. Health Perspect
                Environmental Health Perspectives
                Environmental Health Perspectives
                21 August 2017
                August 2017
                : 125
                : 8
                : 087013
                [ 1 ] McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa , Ottawa, Canada
                [ 2 ] Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) , Barcelona, Spain
                [ 3 ] Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF) , Barcelona, Spain
                [ 4 ] CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) , Madrid, Spain
                [ 5 ] School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa , Ottawa, Canada
                [ 6 ] Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society , Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                [ 7 ] Department of Economics, Brigham Young University , Provo, Utah, USA
                [ 8 ] Population Studies Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada
                [ 9 ] Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles , Los Angeles, California, USA
                [ 10 ] Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington, USA
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to M.C. Turner, McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, 600 Peter Morand Cres., Room 216, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1G 3Z7. Telephone: 613-562-5381.Email: mturner@ 123456uottawa.ca

                EHP is an open-access journal published with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health. All content is public domain unless otherwise noted.

                : 18 October 2016
                : 31 March 2017
                : 31 March 2017

                Public health
                Public health


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