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      In vivo crystalline lens measurements with novel swept-source optical coherent tomography: an investigation on variability of measurement

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          To evaluate the reproducibility of in vivo crystalline lens measurements obtained by novel commercially available swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) specifically designed for anterior segment imaging.

          Methods and analysis

          One eye from each of 30 healthy subjects was randomly selected using the CASIA2 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan) in two separate visits within a week. Each eye was imaged twice. After image scanning, the anterior and posterior lens curvatures and lens thickness were calculated automatically by the CASIA2 built-in program at 0 dioptre (D) (static), −1 D, −3 D and −5 D accommodative stress. The intraobserver and intervisit reproducibility coefficient (RC) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated.


          The intraobserver and intervisit RCs ranged from 0.824 to 1.254 mm and 0.789 to 0.911 mm for anterior lens curvature, from 0.276 to 0.299 mm and 0.221 to 0.270 mm for posterior lens curvature and from 0.065 to 0.094 mm and 0.054 to 0.132 mm for lens thickness, respectively. The intraobserver and intervisit ICCs ranged from 0.831 to 0.865 and 0.828 to 0.914 for anterior lens curvature, from 0.832 to 0.898 and 0.840 to 0.933 for posterior lens curvature and from 0.980 to 0.992 and 0.942 to 0.995 for lens thickness. High ICC values were observed for each measurement regardless of accommodative stress. RCs in younger subjects tended to be larger than those in older subjects.


          This novel anterior segment SS-OCT instrument produced reliable in vivo crystalline lens measurement with good repeatability and reproducibility regardless of accommodation stress.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Biometric, optical and physical changes in the isolated human crystalline lens with age in relation to presbyopia.

          The biometric, optical and physical properties of 19 pairs of isolated human eye-bank lenses ranging in age from 5 to 96 years were compared. Lens focal length and spherical aberration were measured using a scanning laser apparatus, lens thickness and the lens surface curvatures were measured by digitizing the lens profiles and equivalent refractive indices were calculated for each lens using this data. The second lens from each donor was used to measure resistance to physical deformation by providing a compressive force to the lens. The lens capsule was then removed from each lens and each measurement was repeated to ascertain what role the capsule plays in determining these optical and physical characteristics. Age dependent changes in lens focal length, lens surface curvatures and lens resistance to physical deformation are described. Isolated lens focal length was found to be significantly linearly correlated with both the anterior and posterior surface curvatures. No age dependent change in equivalent refractive index of the isolated lens was found. Although decapsulating human lenses causes similar changes in focal length to that which we have shown to occur when human lenses are mechanically stretched into an unaccommodated state, the effects are due to nonsystematic changes in lens curvatures. These studies reinforce the conclusion that lens hardening must be considered as an important factor in the development of presbyopia, that age changes in the human lens are not limited to the loss of accommodation that characterizes presbyopia but that the lens optical and physical properties change substantially with age in a complex manner.
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            The shape of the aging human lens: curvature, equivalent refractive index and the lens paradox.

            Scheimpflug slit images of the crystalline lens are distorted due to the refracting properties of the cornea and because they are obliquely viewed. We measured the aspheric curvature of the lens of 102 subjects ranging in age between 16 and 65 years and applied correction for these distortions. The procedure was validated by measuring an artificial eye and pseudophakic patients with intraocular lenses of known dimensions. Compared to previous studies using Scheimpflug photography, the decrease of the radius of the anterior lens surface with age was smaller, and the absolute value for the radius of the anterior and posterior lens surface was significantly smaller. A slight decrease of the posterior lens radius with age could be demonstrated. Generally, front and back surfaces were hyperbolic. Axial length was measured of 42 subjects enabling calculation of the equivalent refractive index of the lens, which showed a small, but highly significant decrease with age. These new findings explain the lens paradox and may serve as a basis for modelling the refractive properties of the lens.
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              Repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurement with anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

              To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurement obtained by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Twenty-five normal subjects were invited for anterior chamber angle imaging with an anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) on one randomly selected eye in three separate visits within a week. Each eye was imaged three times under room light (light intensity = 368 lux) and three times in the dark during the first visit. In the subsequent visits, each eye was imaged once in the light and once in the dark. The angle opening distance (AOD 500) and the trabecular-iris angle (TIA 500) were measured by a single observer. Only the nasal angle was analysed. Intrasession and intersession within-subject standard deviation (Sw), precision (1.96xSw), coefficient of variation (CVw) (100xSw/overall mean), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility. For intrasession repeatability, the Sw, precision, CVw and ICC of AOD/TIA were 45 microm/2.4 degrees , 88 microm/4.7 degrees , 5.8%/4.8% and 0.97/0.95 in the light; and 45 microm/2.1 degrees , 88 microm/4.2 degrees , 7.0%/5.0% and 0.98/0.97 in the dark. For intersession reproducibility, the Sw, precision, CVw and ICC of AOD/TIA were 79 microm/3.5 degrees , 155 microm/6.8 degrees , 10.0%/7.0%, 0.91/0.89 in the light; and 64 microm/3.4 degrees , 124 microm/6.6 degrees , 9.9%/7.8% and 0.95/0.92 in the dark. The anterior segment OCT demonstrated reliable anterior chamber angle measurement in different lighting conditions with good repeatability and reproducibility.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open Ophthalmol
                BMJ Open Ophthalmol
                BMJ Open Ophthalmology
                BMJ Open Ophthalmology (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                3 March 2017
                : 1
                : 1
                departmentDepartment of Ophthalmology , Saitama Medical University , Iruma, Saitama, Japan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Takuhei Shoji; shoojii@ 123456gmail.com
                © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007449, Takeda Science Foundation;
                Funded by: Grant-in-Aid for Young Researchers from Saitama Medical University Hospital;
                Original Article

                lens and zonules, imaging


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