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      Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins.

      Science (New York, N.Y.)
      Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Cell Line, DNA-Binding Proteins, metabolism, Genes, Genetic Complementation Test, Humans, Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit, Interferon-alpha, pharmacology, Interferon-gamma, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid, Signal Transduction, Transcription Factors, Transcriptional Activation

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          Through the study of transcriptional activation in response to interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), a previously unrecognized direct signal transduction pathway to the nucleus has been uncovered: IFN-receptor interaction at the cell surface leads to the activation of kinases of the Jak family that then phosphorylate substrate proteins called STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription). The phosphorylated STAT proteins move to the nucleus, bind specific DNA elements, and direct transcription. Recognition of the molecules involved in the IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma pathway has led to discoveries that a number of STAT family members exist and that other polypeptide ligands also use the Jak-STAT molecules in signal transduction.

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