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Molecular imaging of stem cell therapy in brain tumors: a step towards personalized medicine

, 1 , 2

Archives of Medical Science : AMS

Termedia Publishing House

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      Neural stem cells display extensive tropism for pathology in adult brain: evidence from intracranial gliomas.

      One of the impediments to the treatment of brain tumors (e.g., gliomas) has been the degree to which they expand, infiltrate surrounding tissue, and migrate widely into normal brain, usually rendering them "elusive" to effective resection, irradiation, chemotherapy, or gene therapy. We demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs), when implanted into experimental intracranial gliomas in vivo in adult rodents, distribute themselves quickly and extensively throughout the tumor bed and migrate uniquely in juxtaposition to widely expanding and aggressively advancing tumor cells, while continuing to stably express a foreign gene. The NSCs "surround" the invading tumor border while "chasing down" infiltrating tumor cells. When implanted intracranially at distant sites from the tumor (e.g., into normal tissue, into the contralateral hemisphere, or into the cerebral ventricles), the donor cells migrate through normal tissue targeting the tumor cells (including human glioblastomas). When implanted outside the CNS intravascularly, NSCs will target an intracranial tumor. NSCs can deliver a therapeutically relevant molecule-cytosine deaminase-such that quantifiable reduction in tumor burden results. These data suggest the adjunctive use of inherently migratory NSCs as a delivery vehicle for targeting therapeutic genes and vectors to refractory, migratory, invasive brain tumors. More broadly, they suggest that NSC migration can be extensive, even in the adult brain and along nonstereotypical routes, if pathology (as modeled here by tumor) is present.
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        Stem cell-based cell therapy in neurological diseases: a review.

        Human neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, and spinal cord injury are caused by a loss of neurons and glial cells in the brain or spinal cord. Cell replacement therapy and gene transfer to the diseased or injured brain have provided the basis for the development of potentially powerful new therapeutic strategies for a broad spectrum of human neurological diseases. However, the paucity of suitable cell types for cell replacement therapy in patients suffering from neurological disorders has hampered the development of this promising therapeutic approach. In recent years, neurons and glial cells have successfully been generated from stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and neural stem cells, and extensive efforts by investigators to develop stem cell-based brain transplantation therapies have been carried out. We review here notable experimental and preclinical studies previously published involving stem cell-based cell and gene therapies for Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, ALS, Alzheimer's disease, MS, stroke, spinal cord injury, brain tumor, and lysosomal storage diseases and discuss the future prospects for stem cell therapy of neurological disorders in the clinical setting. There are still many obstacles to be overcome before clinical application of cell therapy in neurological disease patients is adopted: 1) it is still uncertain what kind of stem cells would be an ideal source for cellular grafts, and 2) the mechanism by which transplantation of stem cells leads to an enhanced functional recovery and structural reorganization must to be better understood. Steady and solid progress in stem cell research in both basic and preclinical settings should support the hope for development of stem cell-based cell therapies for neurological diseases. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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          A new transgene reporter for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging.

          We report a new platform technology for visualizing transgene expression in living subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using a vector, we introduced an MRI reporter, a metalloprotein from the ferritin family, into specific host tissues. The reporter is made superparamagnetic as the cell sequesters endogenous iron from the organism. In this new approach, the cells construct the MRI contrast agent in situ using genetic instructions introduced by the vector. No exogenous metal-complexed contrast agent is required, thereby simplifying intracellular delivery. We used a replication-defective adenovirus vector to deliver the ferritin transgenes. Following focal inoculation of the vector into the mouse brain, we monitored the reporter activity using in vivo time-lapse MRI. We observed robust contrast in virus-transduced neurons and glia for several weeks. This technology is adaptable to monitor transgene expression in vivo in many tissue types and has numerous biomedical applications, such as visualizing preclinical therapeutic gene delivery.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Neurosurgery, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
            [2 ]University of Oradea, Romania
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Bernhard Schaller MD, PhD, DSC, University of Oradea, Romania, Phone: 079 666 99 42b. E-mail: skull_base-surgery@ 123456yahoo.de
            Journal
            Arch Med Sci
            Arch Med Sci
            AMS
            Archives of Medical Science : AMS
            Termedia Publishing House
            1734-1922
            1896-9151
            08 September 2012
            08 September 2012
            : 8
            : 4
            : 601-605
            3460495
            23056068
            19264
            10.5114/aoms.2012.30282
            Copyright © 2012 Termedia & Banach

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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