Initially conceived as an intervention for prostatic infection, injection therapy has been used to alleviate urinary retention, and is now primarily investigated for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). For over a century, intraprostatic injection has been used as a minimally invasive surgical therapy (MIST), and is on the verge of a rebirth. This review will familiarize the reader with the origins and history of intraprostatic injection, and its evolution using transperineal, transrectal and transurethral routes with multiple injectants.
A MEDLINE review of the literature on intraprostatic injections published between 1966 and 2007 was performed, augmented with articles and documents dating back to 1832.
Transperineal and transurethral injections have the most systematic evaluation in patients. There are advantages and disadvantages associated with each route. Most injectants consistently produce localized coagulative necrosis and gland volume reduction with varying degrees of LUTS relief. Anhydrous ethanol (AE) is the most extensively studied injected agent to date.
Injection therapy is a promising minimally invasive treatment option for various prostatic conditions and has been examined for over 100 years. Further experience in systematic laboratory research and completion of currently ongoing clinical trials is necessary before widespread clinical application.