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      Comparison of hemodynamic responses to intubation: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope versus McCoy laryngoscope in presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilization for traumatic cervical spine

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Intubation is known to cause an exaggerated hemodynamic response in the form of tachycardia, hypertension, and dysrhythmias. In cervical spine instability, intubation has to be performed using cervical immobilization to prevent exacerbation of spinal cord injuries. Application of rigid cervical collar may reduce cervical spine movements, but it hinders tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic responses to fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and McCoy laryngoscope in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with rigid cervical collar simulating cervical spine immobilization in the situation of cervical trauma.

          Methods:

          Thirty-two patients in the age range 20–50 years, of American Society of Anaesthesiologist I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups according to the technique used for intubation: Group A (flexible FOB) and Group B (McCoy laryngoscope). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, intraoperatively, immediately before and after induction, and immediately after intubation. Thereafter, every min for next 5 min.

          Statistical Analysis:

          Intergroup comparison of categorical data was done by Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by the parametric test (unpaired t-test), and probability was considered to be significant if <0.05.

          Results:

          Due to intubation response, HR and blood pressure increased significantly ( P < 0.05) above preoperative values in McCoy group as compared to the fiberoptic group.

          Conclusion:

          We suggest that the flexible FOB is an effective and better method of intubation in a situation like traumatic cervical spine injury and provides stable hemodynamics.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to laryngoscopy with and without tracheal intubation.

          The catecholamine and cardiovascular responses to laryngoscopy alone have been compared with those following laryngoscopy and intubation in 24 patients allocated randomly to each group. Following induction with fentanyl and thiopentone, atracurium was administered and artificial ventilation undertaken via a face mask for 2 min with 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Following laryngoscopy, the vocal cords were visualized for 10 s. In one group of patients, ventilation was then re-instituted via a face mask, while in the second group the trachea was intubated during the 10-s period and ventilation of the lungs maintained. Arterial pressure, heart rate and plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were measured before and after induction and at 1, 3 and 5 min after laryngoscopy. There were significant and similar increases in arterial pressure and circulating catecholamine concentrations following laryngoscopy with or without intubation. Intubation, however, was associated with significant increases in heart rate which did not occur in the laryngoscopy-only group.
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            Reduction in mouth opening with semi-rigid cervical collars.

            Reduced mouth opening may be a major contributing factor to the deterioration in the view obtained at laryngoscopy when a semi-rigid cervical collar is in place. We set out to assess the degree to which mouth opening is restricted by a cervical collar. We measured maximal inter-incisor distance in 52 volunteers. It was measured again after application of each of three appropriately sized semi-rigid cervical collars (Stifneck, Miami J, and Philadelphia). Inter-incisor distance was significantly reduced by the application of a cervical collar [No collar 41 (7) mm-mean (SD); Stifneck 26 (8) P<0.0001; Miami J 29 (9) P<0.0001; Philadelphia 29 (9) P<0.0001]. There was a wide and unpredictable variation between subjects in the reduction in mouth opening and a significant proportion had an inter-incisor distance of 20 mm or less (Stifneck, 25%; Miami J, 21%; Philadelphia, 21%). Application of a semi-rigid cervical collar can significantly reduce mouth opening. This could hinder definitive airway placement. Our results support removing the anterior portion of the collar before attempts at tracheal intubation.
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              Fentanyl attenuates the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation more than the response to laryngoscopy.

              We examined the effectiveness of avoiding laryngoscopy in reducing the hemodynamic responses to orotracheal intubation during the induction of anesthesia. One hundred surgical patients who required orotracheal intubation were randomly allocated into four groups. The first and third groups underwent fiberoptic intubation, in which an anesthesiologist inserted the endotracheal tube into the trachea under TV monitoring through a bronchoscope, and the second and fourth groups underwent conventional orotracheal intubation using a rigid laryngoscope. The third and fourth groups were pretreated with 2 microg/kg fentanyl IV immediately before the induction of anesthesia. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured noninvasively. A significant reduction in hemodynamic response was seen in only the group treated with fentanyl and intubated using the fiberoptic technique. Without fentanyl, there was no significant difference in hemodynamic changes between the groups. We conclude that the administration of fentanyl suppresses the hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation more than it does to laryngoscopy. There was no significant difference in the hemodynamic responses to orotracheal intubation by fiberscopy and laryngoscopy without fentanyl pretreatment, whereas 2 microg/kg fentanyl significantly reduced the hemodynamic responses in the group intubated by fiberscopy. We assessed the effectiveness of avoiding laryngoscopy for orotracheal intubation. There was no significant difference in the hemodynamic responses to orotracheal intubation by fiberscopy and laryngoscopy without fentanyl pretreatment, whereas 2 microg/kg fentanyl significantly reduced the hemodynamic responses in the group intubated by fiberscopy. Pretreatment of fentanyl and fiberoptic intubation might be recommended for avoiding hyperdynamic responses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Anesth Essays Res
                Anesth Essays Res
                AER
                Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0259-1162
                2229-7685
                Sep-Dec 2015
                : 9
                : 3
                : 337-342
                Affiliations
                Department of Anaesthesiology, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
                [1 ]Department of Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Dr. Nitesh Gill, Department of Anaesthesiology, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. E-mail: niteshgill@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                AER-9-337
                10.4103/0259-1162.158013
                4683510
                Copyright: © 2015 Anesthesia: Essays and Researches

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

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