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      Animal models of respiratory syncytial virus infection

      research-article
      Vaccine
      Elsevier Science
      Respiratory syncytial virus, Animal models

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          Highlights

          • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause respiratory disease, worldwide.

          • Paediatric and elderly populations are most vulnerable to severe disease.

          • Vaccine development has been hampered by the experience of vaccine-enhanced disease.

          • Animal models do not necessarily predict vaccine efficacy and safety.

          • The strengths and limitations of animal models of RSV infection are summarised.

          Abstract

          Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major cause of respiratory disease and hospitalisation of infants, worldwide, and is also responsible for significant morbidity in adults and excess deaths in the elderly. There is no licensed hRSV vaccine or effective therapeutic agent. However, there are a growing number of hRSV vaccine candidates that have been developed targeting different populations at risk of hRSV infection. Animal models of hRSV play an important role in the preclinical testing of hRSV vaccine candidates and although many have shown efficacy in preclinical studies, few have progressed to clinical trials or they have had only limited success. This is, at least in part, due to the lack of animal models that fully recapitulate the pathogenesis of hRSV infection in humans. This review summarises the strengths and limitations of animal models of hRSV, which include those in which hRSV is used to infect non-human mammalian hosts, and those in which non-human pneumoviruses, such as bovine (b)RSV and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) are studied in their natural host.

          Apart from chimpanzees, other non-human primates (NHP) are only semi-permissive for hRSV replication and experimental infection with large doses of virus result in little or no clinical signs of disease, and generally only mild pulmonary pathology. Other animal models such as cotton rats, mice, ferrets, guinea pigs, hamsters, chinchillas, and neonatal lambs are also only semi-permissive for hRSV. Nevertheless, mice and cotton rats have been of value in the development of monoclonal antibody prophylaxis for infants at high risk of severe hRSV infection and have provided insights into mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of hRSV. However, the extent to which they predict hRSV vaccine efficacy and safety is unclear and several hRSV vaccine candidates that are completely protective in rodent models are poorly effective in chimpanzees and other NHP, such as African Green monkeys. Furthermore, interpretation of findings from many rodent and NHP models of vaccine-enhanced hRSV disease has been confounded by sensitisation to non-viral antigens present in the vaccine and challenge virus.

          Studies of non-human pneumoviruses in their native hosts are more likely to reflect the pathogenesis of natural hRSV infection, and experimental infection of calves with bRSV and of mice with PVM result in clinical disease and extensive pulmonary pathology. These animal models have not only been of value in studies on mechanisms of immunity to and the pathogenesis of pneumovirus infections but have also been used to evaluate hRSV vaccine concepts. Furthermore, the similarities between the epidemiology of bRSV in calves and hRSV in infants and the high level of genetic and antigenic similarity between bRSV and hRSV, make the calf model of bRSV infection a relevant model for preclinical evaluation of hRSV vaccine candidates which contain proteins that are conserved between hRSV and bRSV.

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          Most cited references142

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          Of mice and not men: differences between mouse and human immunology.

          Mice are the experimental tool of choice for the majority of immunologists and the study of their immune responses has yielded tremendous insight into the workings of the human immune system. However, as 65 million years of evolution might suggest, there are significant differences. Here we outline known discrepancies in both innate and adaptive immunity, including: balance of leukocyte subsets, defensins, Toll receptors, inducible NO synthase, the NK inhibitory receptor families Ly49 and KIR, FcR, Ig subsets, the B cell (BLNK, Btk, and lambda5) and T cell (ZAP70 and common gamma-chain) signaling pathway components, Thy-1, gammadelta T cells, cytokines and cytokine receptors, Th1/Th2 differentiation, costimulatory molecule expression and function, Ag-presenting function of endothelial cells, and chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. We also provide examples, such as multiple sclerosis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, where complex multicomponent processes differ. Such differences should be taken into account when using mice as preclinical models of human disease.
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            Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes.

            Commercial hunting and habitat loss are major drivers of the rapid decline of great apes [1]. Ecotourism and research have been widely promoted as a means of providing alternative value for apes and their habitats [2]. However, close contact between humans and habituated apes during ape tourism and research has raised concerns that disease transmission risks might outweigh benefits [3-7]. To date only bacterial and parasitic infections of typically low virulence have been shown to move from humans to wild apes [8, 9]. Here, we present the first direct evidence of virus transmission from humans to wild apes. Tissue samples from habituated chimpanzees that died during three respiratory-disease outbreaks at our research site, Côte d'Ivoire, contained two common human paramyxoviruses. Viral strains sampled from chimpanzees were closely related to strains circulating in contemporaneous, worldwide human epidemics. Twenty-four years of mortality data from observed chimpanzees reveal that such respiratory outbreaks could have a long history. In contrast, survey data show that research presence has had a strong positive effect in suppressing poaching around the research site. These observations illustrate the challenge of maximizing the benefit of research and tourism to great apes while minimizing the negative side effects.
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              The histopathology of fatal untreated human respiratory syncytial virus infection.

              The pathology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was evaluated 1 day after an outpatient diagnosis of RSV in a child who died in a motor vehicle accident. We then identified 11 children with bronchiolitis from the Vanderbilt University autopsy log between 1925 and 1959 who met criteria for possible RSV infection in the preintensivist era. Their tissue was re-embedded and evaluated by routine hematoxylin and eosin and PAS staining and immunostaining with RSV-specific antibodies. Tissue from three cases was immunostain-positive for RSV antigen and was examined in detail. Small bronchiole epithelium was circumferentially infected, but basal cells were spared. Both type 1 and 2 alveolar pneumocytes were also infected. Although, not possible for archival cases, tissue from the index case was evaluated by immunostaining with antibodies to define the cellular components of the inflammatory response. Inflammatory infiltrates were centered on bronchial and pulmonary arterioles and consisted of primarily CD69+ monocytes, CD3+ double-negative T cells, CD8+ T cells, and neutrophils. The neutrophil distribution was predominantly between arterioles and airways, while the mononuclear cell distribution was in both airways and lung parenchyma. Most inflammatory cells were concentrated submuscular to the airway, but many cells traversed the smooth muscle into the airway epithelium and lumen. Airway obstruction was a prominent feature in all cases attributed to epithelial and inflammatory cell debris mixed with fibrin, mucus, and edema, and compounded by compression from hyperplastic lymphoid follicles. These findings inform our understanding of RSV pathogenesis and may facilitate the development of new approaches for prevention and treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Vaccine
                Vaccine
                Vaccine
                Elsevier Science
                0264-410X
                1873-2518
                11 January 2017
                11 January 2017
                : 35
                : 3
                : 469-480
                Affiliations
                The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom
                Article
                S0264-410X(16)31116-1
                10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.11.054
                5244256
                27908639
                7be27379-0953-4fea-80b6-8daafd6e771b
                © 2016 The Author

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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                Categories
                Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                respiratory syncytial virus,animal models
                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                respiratory syncytial virus, animal models

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