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      Trimethylamine N-oxide–derived zwitterionic polymers: A new class of ultralow fouling bioinspired materials

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          Abstract

          Superhydrophilic zwitterionic polymers derived from trimethylamine N-oxide are reported as a new class of nonfouling materials.

          Abstract

          Materials that resist nonspecific protein adsorption are needed for many applications. However, few are able to achieve ultralow fouling in complex biological milieu. Zwitterionic polymers emerge as a class of highly effective ultralow fouling materials due to their superhydrophilicity, outperforming other hydrophilic materials such as poly(ethylene glycol). Unfortunately, there are only three major classes of zwitterionic materials based on poly(phosphorylcholine), poly(sulfobetaine), and poly(carboxybetaine) currently available. Inspired by trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a zwitterionic osmolyte and the most effective protein stabilizer, we here report TMAO-derived zwitterionic polymers (PTMAO) as a new class of ultralow fouling biomaterials. The nonfouling properties of PTMAO were demonstrated under highly challenging conditions. The mechanism accounting for the extraordinary hydration of PTMAO was elucidated by molecular dynamics simulations. The discovery of PTMAO polymers demonstrates the power of molecular understanding in the design of new biomimetic materials and provides the biomaterials community with another class of nonfouling zwitterionic materials.

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          Most cited references 28

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          On the mechanisms of biocompatibility.

          The manner in which a mutually acceptable co-existence of biomaterials and tissues is developed and sustained has been the focus of attention in biomaterials science for many years, and forms the foundation of the subject of biocompatibility. There are many ways in which materials and tissues can be brought into contact such that this co-existence may be compromised, and the search for biomaterials that are able to provide for the best performance in devices has been based upon the understanding of all the interactions within biocompatibility phenomena. Our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility has been restricted whilst the focus of attention has been long-term implantable devices. In this paper, over 50 years of experience with such devices is analysed and it is shown that, in the vast majority of circumstances, the sole requirement for biocompatibility in a medical device intended for long-term contact with the tissues of the human body is that the material shall do no harm to those tissues, achieved through chemical and biological inertness. Rarely has an attempt to introduce biological activity into a biomaterial been clinically successful in these applications. This essay then turns its attention to the use of biomaterials in tissue engineering, sophisticated cell, drug and gene delivery systems and applications in biotechnology, and shows that here the need for specific and direct interactions between biomaterials and tissue components has become necessary, and with this a new paradigm for biocompatibility has emerged. It is believed that once the need for this change is recognised, so our understanding of the mechanisms of biocompatibility will markedly improve.
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            Hydrogen-bond kinetics in liquid water

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Adv
                Sci Adv
                SciAdv
                advances
                Science Advances
                American Association for the Advancement of Science
                2375-2548
                June 2019
                14 June 2019
                : 5
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
                [2 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
                [3 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University and Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201203, China.
                Author notes
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                []Corresponding author. Email: sjiang@ 123456uw.edu
                Article
                aaw9562
                10.1126/sciadv.aaw9562
                6570511
                Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: doi http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000774, Defense Threat Reduction Agency;
                Award ID: HDTRA1-13-1- 0044
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                SciAdv r-articles
                Materials Science
                Materials Science
                Custom metadata
                Anne Suarez

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