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      Hyperglycemic Crises in Diabetes

      Diabetes Care

      American Diabetes Association

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          Insulin omission in women with IDDM.

          To describe the extent of intentional insulin omission in an outpatient population of women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and examine its relationship to disordered eating, attitudes toward diabetes, other psychosocial factors, long-term complications, and glycemic control. Before their routinely scheduled clinic appointments, female IDDM patients who were 13-60 years of age completed a self-report survey (final n = 341). The survey included standardized questionnaires assessing disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, psychological functioning (general distress, diabetes-specific distress, and hypoglycemic fear), attitudes toward diabetes, and self-care behaviors. All subjects were assessed for glycosylated hemoglobin within 30 days of survey completion. Long-term complications were determined through chart review. Approximately 31% of the subject sample, representing women of all ages, reported intentional insulin omission, but only 8.8% reported frequent omission. Compared with non-omitters, omitters reported more disordered eating, greater psychological distress (general and diabetes-specific), more hypoglycemic fear, poorer regimen adherence, and greater fears concerning improved diabetes management (which may lead to weight gain). Omitters evidenced poorer glycemic control, more diabetes-related hospitalizations, and higher rates of retinopathy and neuropathy. Multivariate examination revealed only two variables that independently predicted omission: diabetes-specific distress and fear of improved glycemic control ("because I will gain weight"). Of the omitters, approximately half reported omitting insulin for weight-management purposes (weight-related omitters). These subjects evidenced significantly greater psychological distress, poorer regimen adherence (including more frequent omission), poorer glycemic control, and higher rates of complications than did non-weight-related omitters as well as non-omitters. Non-weight-related omitters tended to fall between weight-related omitters and non-omitters on most measures of psychological functioning, adherence, and glycemic control. These findings suggest that insulin omission is common, that it is not limited to younger women, and that the medical consequences of omission, especially frequent omission, may be severe. Although a strong association between omission and disordered eating was observed, these data suggest that this link may be complicated by important diabetes-specific factors. Patients preoccupied with eating and weight concerns may also become emotionally overwhelmed by diabetes and/or fearful of normoglycemia (and the associated weight-related consequences), thus reinforcing the desire to omit insulin and maintain elevated blood glucose levels.
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            Hyperglycemic crises in urban blacks.

            The hospital admission and mortality rates of patients with diabetic emergencies, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS), are higher in black patients than in white patients with diabetes. However, there is limited data describing the precipitating events and response to treatment in black patients. Analysis of their clinical characteristics and response to medical therapy is needed to evaluate the impact of programs designed to reduce the development of these acute metabolic complications. A prospective evaluation was conducted of 144 consecutive patients with DKA and 23 patients with HHNS admitted to a large inner-city hospital between July 1993 and October 1994. In patients previously diagnosed as having diabetes, poor compliance with insulin therapy was the major precipitating cause for DKA (49%) and HHNS (42%). Alcohol or cocaine abuse was a contributing factor for noncompliance and was present in 35% and 13% of patients with DKA and in 44% and 9% of patients with HHNS, respectively. Newly diagnosed diabetes accounted for 17% of patients with DKA and HHNS. Obesity (body mass index > 28 kg/m2 [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters]) was present in 29% of patients with DKA and in 17% with HHNS and was most common in patients with DKA who were newly diagnosed as having diabetes (56%). Patients were treated by residents, who used a low-dose insulin protocol with an algorithm for insulin adjustment in 88 of 144 patients with DKA and 14 of 23 patients with HHNS. Although there was no difference in mortality rates or time needed to correct hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis, the use of the protocol significantly reduced the risk of hypoglycemia (5%) compared with patients treated without a protocol (23%) (P < .01). In urban black patients, poor compliance with insulin therapy was the main precipitating cause of acute metabolic decompensation, and substance abuse was a significant contributing factor for noncompliance. Obesity is common in black patients with DKA; it was present in more than half of those with newly diagnosed diabetes. Improved patient education and better access to medical care might reduce the development of these hyperglycemic emergencies.
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              Management of Hyperglycemic Crises in Patients With Diabetes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetes Care
                Diabetes Care
                American Diabetes Association
                0149-5992
                1935-5548
                January 01 2004
                December 23 2003
                : 27
                : Supplement 1
                : S94-S102
                Article
                10.2337/diacare.27.2007.S94
                © 2003

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