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      A Revision of North American Lactura (Lepidoptera, Zygaenoidea, Lacturidae)

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      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The Lactura Walker, 1854 fauna north of Mexico is revised. Six species are documented, one new species Lacturanalli Matson & Wagner, sp. n. is described, and two new synonymies are proposed: Lacturapsammitis (Zeller, 1872), syn. n. and L.rhodocentra (Meyrick, 1913), syn. n. One new subspecies Lacturasubfervenssapeloensis Matson & Wagner, ssp. n. is also described. Adult and larval stages, male and female genitalia, are illustrated, a preliminary phylogeny is presented based on nuclear and mitochondrial data, distribution records provided for verified specimens, and the biology and life history for each species is briefly characterized. Phylogenetic analyses, larval phenotypes, and life history information reveal that much of the historic taxonomic confusion rampant across this group in North America traces to the phenotypic variation in just one species, L.subfervens (Walker, 1854).

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          Most cited references 16

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          Genomic outposts serve the phylogenomic pioneers: designing novel nuclear markers for genomic DNA extractions of lepidoptera.

          Increasing the number of characters used in phylogenetic studies is the next crucial step towards generating robust and stable phylogenetic hypotheses - i.e., strongly supported and consistent across reconstruction method. Here we describe a genomic approach to finding new protein-coding genes for systematics in nonmodel taxa, which can be PCR amplified from standard, slightly degraded genomic DNA extracts. We test this approach on Lepidoptera, searching the draft genomic sequence of the silk moth Bombyx mori, for exons > 500 bp in length, removing annotated gene families, and compared remaining exons with butterfly EST databases to identify conserved regions for primer design. These primers were tested on a set of 65 taxa primarily in the butterfly family Nymphalidae. We were able to identify and amplify six previously unused gene regions (Arginine Kinase, GAPDH, IDH, MDH, RpS2, and RpS5) and two rarely used gene regions (CAD and DDC) that when added to the three traditional gene regions (COI, EF-1alpha and wingless) gave a data set of 8114 bp. Phylogenetic robustness and stability increased with increasing numbers of genes. Smaller taxanomic subsets were also robust when using the full gene data set. The full 11-gene data set was robust and stable across reconstruction methods, recovering the major lineages and strongly supporting relationships within them. Our methods and insights should be applicable to taxonomic groups having a single genomic reference species and several EST databases from taxa that diverged less than 100 million years ago.
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            Systematics and evolution of the cutworm moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): evidence from two protein-coding nuclear genes

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              DNA barcodes for insects.

              DNA barcoding refers to the technique of sequencing a short fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, the "DNA barcode," from a taxonomically unknown specimen and performing comparisons with a reference library of barcodes of known species origin to establish a species-level identification. The library barcodes gain their value due to an intimate association-through the vouchered specimens from where they came-with other data; particularly Linnaean names, collection localities, and morphology in the form of digital images. Consequently, this chapter details means of efficiently obtaining barcodes along two general streams: rapid barcode assembly to populate the library and retrieval of barcodes from highly prized specimens, but also emphasizes organization and collection of the barcode collaterals.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ZooKeys
                ZK
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2970
                1313-2989
                May 16 2019
                May 16 2019
                : 846
                : 75-116
                Article
                10.3897/zookeys.846.31953
                6533213
                31148929
                © 2019

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